.

Submarine 627 Kit

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    Country

    Russia

    type

    attack submarines

    feature

    submarine

    General characteristics

    Length (m):

    104,7

    Width (m):

    7,9

    Displacement (tons):

    4750

    Speed (knots):

    30

    Immersion depth (m):

    300

    Draft (m):

    5,6

    nuclear reactor:

    2

    Crew:

    104

    Vooruzhenie

    torpedo tubes:

    8 533 mm

    electronic equipment

    Locator / Radar:

    RLK-101

    MSA:

    Prizma

    whale submarine 627

    Searches (purely theoretical) work on the study appearance nuclear submarine began in the USSR in 1949, when they were first achieved real results in the creation of the Soviet nuclear weapons and for four years worked as a research nuclear reactor.

    In 1950, these studies were informed confidentially some fleet commanders (in particular, the commander of the Northern Fleet, which is primarily planned introduction of new technology). September 9, 1952, Stalin signed a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR "On the design and construction of the facility" 627 Kit "." In accordance with this document for work on the creation of a nuclear submarine in Moscow, in an atmosphere of extreme secrecy, there were two groups of engineers and scientists, one of which, led by VN Peregudov, was entrusted with the study of the actual ship design, and the second headed by NA Dollezhal - his power plant. Scientific director of works on creation of the first national ALL was appointed director of the Institute of Atomic Energy of the USSR Academy Aleksandrov.

    Naturally, the most difficult problem was to develop a nuclear power plant, which could be placed on board such a specific vehicle, like a submarine. The first Soviet clean "earth" nuclear power plant capacity of 5 MW was put into operation in Obninsk in 1954 (it was used to supply the city). Then followed the first naval reactor (the most powerful in the world for its time), to be placed on the "peaceful" nuclear icebreaker "Lenin", which is actually an experienced ship served for working ship propulsion. Responsible for the development of steam supply system for submarine became NII-8 Ministry of Medium Machine Building, headed NA Dollezhal. Designing a steam turbine power plant performed SLE Kirov Plant (chief designer Kazak MA) in conjunction with the SCR-143. Electrical equipment created by the "Electric power».

    whale submarine 627

    Start

    experienced "boat" reactor mounted in the suburban Obninsk, held March 8, 1956, however, "the first attempt came out lumpy" - because of the lack of structural reactor lid immediately arose leaking radioactive water. Subsequently lid design has been changed. Not immediately formed and nuclear safety requirements for ship power plants. So, at the beginning of the 50s has been suggested that overloading of radioactive fuel could be held directly in the open sea (of course, the adoption of such proposals would lead to exposure of each participating in such an operation). Experimental nuclear submarine "627 Kit" designed primarily for extensive testing in a marine environment of the first sample of nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor. However, it was seen as a prototype model and the new strategic weapons systems designed to fight the major "potential enemy" - the United States. In accordance with the original plan, proposed by scientists and endorsed by the political leadership, the icebreaker had to deliver nuclear strikes on naval bases and other strategic targets located on the coast of the enemy. To do this, it was supposed to equip heavy-duty gas-vapor torpedo T-15 (caliber 1550 mm, length 24 m, the range of the 40-50 km), equipped with a nuclear warhead (and final dimensions were determined such monstrous dimensions torpedoes). Designers work groups were conducted in an atmosphere of extreme secrecy, involving very narrow circle of participants. At the same to them in the first stage of the program involved virtually Navy specialists, which negatively affected the formation of the image of the submarine. In March 1953 a group of VN Peregudova finalized predeskizny submarine project. The first Soviet nuclear-powered ship was supposed to have double-hulled architecture with extremely high aspect ratio and cross section is nearly circular. Two-shaft power plant would achieve maximum underwater speed of at least 25 knots. Maximum submergence submarine "627 Kit" compared with the then domestic and foreign diesel-electric submarines increased in half (to 300 m).

    whale submarine 627

    Autonomy diving "627 Kit" was to be 50 - 60 days, which imposes new, much higher demands on the life support system of the ship.

    full development of experimental submarine 627-year project received cipher "Kit" was the spring of 1953 assigned to the Leningrad CFC-143 (later known as PKB "Malachite»).

    in May 1954 to finalize the technical design of nuclear submarines, and in July to participate in the program were finally brought naval specialists. Their opinion on the draft of the new boat was not favorable: was awarded the problematic use of the ship in its basic purpose - to deliver nuclear strikes against coastal targets in a potential enemy. It was also pointed to the lack full speed, poor torpedoes, high noise, low resource and maintainability, other shortcomings. This led to the inclusion in the draft of a number of radical changes: NPS lost "supertorpedy" T-15, in return enhancement is usually torpedoes. As a result, it took almost complete overhauls bow of the hull to the second compartment, inclusive. Increase the maximum speed of the ship underwater. At the same time preserved the main "ship" elements of the original project. The submarine was refocused on fighting warships and transports the enemy. Layout boats premises (the first time in domestic submarine shipbuilding) worked out on special wooden natural layouts that were carried out for all submarine compartments.

    By developing working drawings of submarines "627 Kit" started in March 1954, before the final approval of the technical design, and in June 1954 the factory number 402 in Molotovske (now Sevmash in g . Severodvinsk) in an atmosphere of extreme secrecy, in a specially fenced off section of the boathouse, work began on the construction of the first Soviet nuclear submarines.

    Robust housing made of steel AK-25 and divided into nine watertight compartments: 1st - bow torpedo, 2nd - battery and residential, third - section of the central post, 4th - compartment auxiliary equipment 5th - the reactor compartment, 6th - turbine compartment, 7th - electromechanical compartment, 8th and 9th - living compartments and compartments ship systems. The ship was equipped with a nuclear power plant with a nominal capacity of 35 000 liters. with. consisting of two pressurized water reactors VM-A 70 mW (placed consecutively in the center plane of the ship in the middle of the hull) with steam generators (pobortno from them) and two 60-unit turbozubchatyh A total capacity of 35,000 liters. s. Submarines were designed for special low-noise controllable pitch propellers (CPP). Reactor compartment equipped zhelezovodnoy biological protection, ensuring radiation safety of the crew. There were two diesel-DC DW-400 (with diesel M-820). Auxiliary propulsion motors provide motion at speeds up to 8 knots. To improve the acoustic stealth boat depreciated capital equipment, used vibrodemp firuyuschie-coating, lightweight hull also (for the first time in the world league) got protivogidrolokatsionnoe cover. However, despite the measures taken, the level of noise the first Soviet nuclear icebreaker was significantly superior to their American counterparts. Boat equipped with sonar weaponry which is based on sonar (ASG) MG-200 "Arktika-M" operating mode noise - and ehopelengova of. Station antenna located in front of a fence cutting. Furthermore, there were sonar detection sonar signals and sonar communication "Light", shumopelengatornaya station "Mars-16KP" sonar and underwater obstacles detection station "Ray." Radar equipment included radar detection of surface targets and torpedo fire control "Prism" and radar reconnaissance station "freewheeling". Radio communication means used were similar naDEPL projects 611 and 613. Composition navigator armament was supplemented by the navigation system "Pluton", providing weapons, navigation and use when navigating between 80 ° north and south latitudes. Torpedoes completely housed in the bow of the boat. It included eight 533-mm tubes with 20 torpedoes total ammunition SET-65 or 53-65K. First in the Soviet submarine fleet shall be possible to torpedo firing at depths up to 100 m for data generation torpedo firing machine ensured "Thorium».

    whale submarine 627

    22 October 1955 the Council of Ministers of the USSR adopted a resolution on the development of the project on the basis of ALL "627 Kit". While maintaining the basic technical solutions, equipment and main propulsion, new submarines were to have increased survivability and reliability, improved navigational service. To create a more favorable working conditions GAS "Arktika-M" its antenna placed in the keel of the bow in a special influx. Over torpedo tubes installed antenna shumopelengatornoy station MG-10.

    spring 1956, SKB-143 was a technical project improved the ship, and in the autumn of the same year was completed processing of shop drawings and maintenance documentation. In 1955, without waiting for the test results of the first nuclear-powered and complete design work in Severodvinsk turned the construction of a series of 12 ships of project 627A.

    Originally

    reliable boats of the "627 Kit" and 627A was relatively low. The reason for this lay in the first place in low resource main power plant steam generators. After a few hundred hours of steam generators tube bundles arose microscopic cracks through which water from the primary circuit into the second loop, increasing the level of radioactivity in it.

    Increasing the intensity of combat service and involving nuclear submarines quickly bore fruit: in 1964 diesel-electric submarines during the BS was achieved 16 sightings of underwater targets, in 1965, when "the scene" went nuclear subs "627 Kit", the number of sightings has increased to 42. However, it should be recognized that the first generation submarines not intended to hunt for enemy submarines: their noise was great, hydroacoustic equipment was relatively low performance. Therefore, contacts with U.S. nuclear submarines have usually short-lived and long-term tracking of set failed. At the same time it should be noted that the American fleet, placing the mid-1960s. specialized low-noise antisubmarine APLtipa Permit, also failed to ensure regular monitoring of the nuclear-powered icebreaker Soviet rocket 1st generation, has a relatively high noise level.

    whale submarine 627

    K-3 Leninsky komsomolets1958/1991

    From July 3, 1958 boat, received tactical number K-3, started sea trials, which took place in the White Sea. July 4, 1958 at 10:00 3 minutes for the first time in the history of the domestic fleet for movement of the ship was used atomic energy. Tests ended December 1, 1958 during which the power plant capacity was limited to 60% of nominal. When this has been achieved speed 23.3 node that node 3 has exceeded the estimated value. In January 1959 K-3 was assigned to the Navy for pilot operation, which ended in 1962, after which ALL become "full" Northern Fleet.

    In 1959, K-3 under the command of Captain 1st rank LG Osipenko passed under the Arctic ice 260 miles. July 17, 1962, this submarine has performed to the North Pole, but to surface prevented dense ice cover thickness is reached 12m. Shortly after Arctic trek submarine K-3 was named "Leninsky Komsomol". In the future, K-3 was upgraded, is to conduct a series of improvements that have increased the reliability of steam-productive plant replacement of some equipment, new installations torpedo firing, avionics improvements. Sonar "Arktika-M" moved from the fence-cutting in fore end of the boat where the speaker was formed for the influx of hull lines, and over the torpedo tubes were placed shumopelengatornoy station antenna new MG-10.

    Operation

    ALL "Leninsky Komsomol" lasted until 1991, when this boat carrying service on par with other nuclear-powered ships.

    August 8, 1967, while returning submarine "Leninsky Komsomol" with military service, in the first compartment caught fire hydraulics. In the transition of personnel into the second compartment fire through an open bulkhead door spread further. Isolation of carbon monoxide was so intense that after a few minutes the staff of the first and second compartment stopped responding central post. Short opening bulkhead door from the third to the second compartment for the production of intelligence led to zagazovyvaniyu and third compartment where personnel also began to lose consciousness. The boat floated on the surface, vented third and fourth compartments and on the surface sealed with the first and second compartments for four days was on base. The accident killed 39 people.

    After the cancellation

    "Leninsky Komsomol" There were plans to refit his ship museum (a project was developed CB "Malachite»).

    K-14 1959/1992

    In 1966, "K-14" made a 17-day transition under the Arctic ice, paving the road on which the distillation was carried out in the future European nuclear submarines built to the Pacific Fleet.

    K-5 1960/1992

    K-8 1960/1970

    October 13, 1960 ruptured steam generators and pipelines volume compensator on "K-8" which rehearsed combat training at the sites of the Barents Sea. Emergency protection was dropped, the crew proceeded to an emergency. For this alarm system was installed by pouring the reactor, thus avoiding melting of the core. All ALL was contaminated with radioactive gases. Assess the radiological situation could not, as all devices off scale. In 13-man crew appeared outward signs of radiation sickness.

    April 12, 1970 during a large-scale exercise "Ocean» "K-8" dead. The ship is not specifically prepared to participate in these exercises, he completed military service in the Mediterranean. Restock food and funds recovery from a surface ship, "K-8" under the original plan submerged passed Gibraltar strait and went out into the Atlantic, where he received orders to follow on April 7 in a given area to participate in the exercise. Later the ship not communicate. 8 April at 21.30 in the Bay of Biscay, several hundred miles from the coast of Spain, on board a boat in the 3rd compartment caught fire due to fire rounds of regeneration. Worked reactor protection system and the ship, surfaced in buoyancy, remained virtually without power. Diesel generators due to faulty use failed. On the second day was spent air supply, making it difficult to maintain alignment of trim and buoyancy. The crew fought for survival of the ship more than three days, but to save the K-8 failed. In the seventh and eighth compartments began flowing seawater. April 11 at 6.18 boat sank at a depth of 4680 m, taking with him the life 52 crew members. Some people had been evacuated to the Soviet ships coming up to the accident.

    K-115 1960/1992

    K-21 1961/1992

    K-11 1961/1992

    February 7, 1965 during Operation overload the core, which was conducted in violation of the technology. Spewed steam mixture under the reactor lid ajar. Devices of radiation control group off scale. All the staff has been deleted. Within five days of work were not kept, experts have tried to figure out why it happened. Making the wrong conclusions, February 12 began repeated lifting the lid, while again violated the technology. There was a new release of radioactive steam-air medium under a cover, and the fire started. As a result, lost part of staff of the Premier League, the others received high radiation doses.

    K-181 1962/1992

    In 1963, "K-181" performed high-latitude campaign, pop-September 29 at the North Pole.

    To check the possibility of using nuclear-powered submarines in the southern latitudes of the "K-181" in 1963 made a trip to the equatorial regions of the Atlantic. This experience came in handy in 1966, when "K-181" from the third division of submarines of the Northern Fleet in conjunction with the K-116 missile carriers made a "round the world" through the transition to the Pacific Fleet Atlantic and Pacific oceans, passing submerged for 54 day almost 20,000 miles.

    K-133 1962/1992

    K-159 1963/1992

    submarine "K-159" sank in the Barents Sea 30/08/2003. At "K-159", the decommissioned and haul to the disposal site, there were 10 crew members, one of whom was able to save.

    K-42 Rostov komsomolets1963/1992

    In 1968, "Rostov Komsomolets" in conjunction with the K-55 made the transition ice under the Arctic ice. This trip was different from those in the boats carried on board staffing nuclear weapons.

    June 28, 1978 "Rostov Komsomolets" surfaced at 02 hours and 50 minutes and was immediately open and watch the radar detected three goals. Standing on the sea fog, visibility did not exceed half cables, sea waves - 1 point. Icebreaker followed a course of 56 ° at a speed of 9.3 knot and three hours went on a new course for the 25 ° discrepancy with the aim of number 2. But in 3:00 1 minute and turned away goal number 2 to the right by 50 °, but her turn on the boat was not detected as "combat readiness number 1" to swim in the fog has not been announced and payment BIP has not been deployed. Command "Rostov Komsomolets", not knowing about the turn goal number 2, ordered in 3 hours 5 minutes to go to a heading of 350 ° to increase the distance discrepancy. A minute later, turn navigator defined objectives and elements of its motion. His report to the bridge went to the captain just before the visual detection of target number 2. Tanker "Silhouette" followed with a speed of 8.5 knots course 277 ° and turning right, reduced the speed by one knot. Its running lights were visually detected in 3 hours 10 minutes. At the same time they saw the commander and the officer of the watch signalman in distance less than 300 meters on the right bearing 60 °. Immediately on the submarine was given reverse turbine wheel and put "left on board." But the measures taken too late and in two minutes there was a collision, "Rostov Komsomolets" tanker. Almost extinguished inertia Forward fell upon the bow of the boat at the stern of the tanker valance "Silhouette". The accident resulted in the boat received minor damage skin and sonar.

    K-50 1963/1992

    K-52 1963/1992

    K-27 1963/1968

    October 22, 1955 came the party and the government decree on the establishment of an experimental nuclear attack submarine project 645 with a two-reactor steam supply system with a hyperbolic zhidkometal-coolant (lead-bismuth alloy). Originally APLosuschestvlyalas development under the leadership of VN Peregudova, in 1956 it was replaced by AK Nazarov. Chief of the Navy were watching AN Donchenko and A. Gubkin.

    tactical and technical requirements for a new boat has been issued, the work was started immediately with the technical design stage: it was assumed that the submarine project 645 was to be different from the boat 627-year project only power plant, which would evaluate as objectively as possible GEMs with dignity kometallicheskim liquid coolant. However, to fully implement this plan failed. In ship design changes were made due the first nuclear-powered ships operating experience and the results of tests of an experimental nuclear power plant with liquid metal on the stand Physics and Power Engineering. Maintenance work on the project Appleby finished in autumn 1956 should be noted that while not put stringent requirements on the noise of the boat and the influence of its acoustic noises on the airborne sonar. As part of the design calculations were performed only critical speed propellers and aircraft noise in the compartments of the ship.

    In November 1957 were issued working drawings, and June 15, 1958 was held in Severodvinsk nuclear-powered prototype tab. His afloat on April 1, 1962 and October 30, 1963 ALL Project 645 tactical number "K-27" was included in the Navy. As ships 627-year project, the new submarine was intended to combat surface ships and transport vessels of the enemy during operations in oceanic and remote maritime theaters.

    In May 1968, K-27 went to sea to test the functionality of the power plant, as well as to practice combat training missions. May 24 when checking the parameters of the power plant at full stroke has been a sharp drop in reactor power. At the same time has been a significant increase in the pressure in the gas system of the primary circuit, increasing the coolant level in the buffer tank and the appearance of water in the emergency condenser. The most probable cause of the accident, which killed nine members of the nuclear submarine crew, was a sharp deterioration in the core heat removal from penetrating into the oxides of lead-bismuth alloy and slag.

    In connection with the accident required additional research on the effects of alloy and dissolved therein oxides on the circulation of coolant, as well as the state of the circuit surfaces, studying the conditions of formation of insoluble residues and dust oxides. The results were used in the development of GEMs for boats 705 Lira project.

    After the accident recovery "K-27" was considered inappropriate. For 13 years she was in reserve, and then transferred to the deposit.





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