.

Submarine 658/658M

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    Country

    Russia

    type

    Missile Submarine

    feature

    submarine

    General characteristics

    Length (m):

    114

    Width (m):

    9,2

    Displacement (tons):

    5300

    Speed (knots):

    26

    Immersion depth (m):

    300

    Draft (m):

    7,5

    nuclear reactor:

    2

    Crew:

    104

    Vooruzhenie

    torpedo tubes:

    4 533 mm
    4 400 mm

    Ballistic missiles:

    3 R-13/R-21 by 658 M

    submarine 658/658m

    Experience gained during the design and construction of the first Soviet nuclear attack submarines, as well as diesel-electric submarines - V611 projects and 629/629A, allowed in the mid-1950s. begin to build the first Soviet nuclear submarines equipped with ballistic missiles. The ship was intended to apply nuclear missile strikes on naval bases, ports, industrial and administrative center, located on the coast and in the hinterland of the enemy.

    To reduce the time of the program, as well as reduce the technical risk in creating a fundamentally new class of warships was decided to develop the first Soviet SSBNs based structural solutions implemented on a nuclear submarine torpedo project 627 Keith.

    Party and the government decree on the establishment of nuclear missile submarine project "658/658M" published August 26, 1956 Designing the ship was requested CDB-18 (later - CDB "Ruby"). Development of design documentation began in September 1956, work was carried out under the leadership of SN Kovalev. Deputy chief designer from the beginning of work on the project was I. D. Spassky. Engineering design was completed in the first. quarter 1957 (preliminary design of the submarine was not developed due to extremely tight deadlines dictated by the realities of the "arms race»).

    In accordance with the original plans the ship was supposed to equip weapons, the creation of which is nearing completion - missile complex D-2 with liquid missiles R-13 having freeboard start (testing of this complex was originally developed for weapons diesel-electric submarines 629/629A, began in December 1958). However, in 1958 it was decided to begin drafting 658M providing more promising re boats with underwater missile launch. Government Decree on the establishment of a new missile complex D-4 came out March 20, 1958 The complex is supposed to be installed on the nuclear-powered icebreaker in the overhaul and modernization.

    submarine 658/658m

    American prototype K-19

    Work on the creation of the first Soviet SSBNs were developed almost simultaneously with similar work in the U.S., where in 1956 the program was launched Polaris A1. However, if the Soviet Union submarine project "658/658M" treated as a kind of synthesis of existing technologies, the U.S. Navy created an entirely new weapons system, which was based on unparalleled small-sized solid-fuel ballistic missile with underwater launch, has a much greater capabilities than its Soviet counterpart. At the same time, the first carrier Polaris A1 - J. SSBN Washington, as well as boat project "658/658M," was developed on the basis of an existing project - the nuclear submarine torpedo type Skipjack. Small size Polaris A1, as well as more simple and compact starter allowed to place on J. Washington 16 missiles (two rows of eight mines).

    «genetic link" project "658/658M" project with 627 Keith determine relatively small width of the pressure hull of the ship, as well as respectable size domestic ballistic missiles, bulky and complex starting device (developed according to design standards for heavy artillery surface ships), allows the placement of missile silos on the boat only in one row. Three missiles are located in the fence cutting, which as a result has received an unusually large, very far from optimal (in terms of hydrodynamics) dimensions.

    submarine 658/658m

    Compared with torpedo boat project 627 Keith in design nuclear-powered missile have been several significant changes. In particular, the control at high speeds have been used small horizontal stern rudders. The boat had low noise and more tenacious electrohydraulic control system rudders. Envisaged blowing main ballast low pressure air. Introduces autonomous fire extinguishing system in the reactor compartment. Because requirements provide high seaworthiness surfaced during prelaunch and launch missiles, had to abandon the "torpedo" shaped bow of the boat and return to the traditional "ship" contoured shape. Compared with the American counterpart, the first Soviet nuclear-powered ship missile had a higher rate of underwater and surface speed, increased depth, and better survivability, giving American SSBNs by level of secrecy, as well as the characteristics of media. Quite substantially lost project "658/658M" and for such indicator, as the ratio of tonnage to the missile ship. If J. Washington for every ton raketPolaris A1 had a little more than 30 tons of displacement, then the Soviet boat, this value increased to almost 130 tons Construction of the first indigenous missile nuclear submarines was launched in Severodvinsk on the 402-m factory. During continuous construction of ships for the first time (in relation to NPS) in our country began to penetrate the block method of construction, as well as a number of other technological innovations.

    submarine 658/658m

    For six years, has been successfully implemented large-scale, unique to the domestic defense industry, construction program a series of eight nuclear submarines carrying a total of 24 ballistic missiles with powerful thermonuclear warheads. However, it should be recognized that the rapid growth of the U.S. nuclear missile submarine fleet successes of the Soviet shipbuilders looked pretty; modestly from 30 December 1950 to 29 May 1964 the U.S. Navy have commissioned 20 missile

    SSBN project "658/658M" treated like other Russian submarines, to double-hulled type. Robust housing divided into 10 compartments. Buoyancy was 31%. Set the outer casing was carried out in the longitudinal system that provides significant savings in the metal and a number of technological advantages over formerly used for domestic submarine transverse framing system.

    Already during the series-built part of the boats got shumopogloschayuscheepokrytie cladding made of special rubber and makes it difficult for the pursuit of the enemy ship sonar operating in active mode (it should be noted that such coatings have been introduced in the Soviet Navy's first). However, the coverage of the first generation were not very strong, and the beginning of the 1970s. almost all boats "658/658M" project swam "peeled».

    ship got vseshirotny navigation system "Sigma" with astrokorrektorom. Sonar included sonar "Arctic" ("Arctic-M") - the first national ASG with a combined reflex antenna providing operation mode shumopelengovaniya and distance measurement. ASG developed under the leadership of EI Aladyshkin, had a range mode ehopelengovaniya 8 km and 1-18 km shumopelengovaniya:

    For

    job enemy boat could use sonar countermeasures devices MG-14, launched from torpedo tubes. In 1967 he replaced the MG-14 came more sophisticated self-propelled unit of acoustic noise MG-24, which had a mass of 7 kg, use a depth of 30 - 40 m and continuous operating time of 30 minutes. Popping MG-24 was carried out through a special device VIPS. In the same 1967 on weapons and submarines entered drifting compact combined unit MG-34, intended for use at depths ranging from 30 to 200 m, and also shoots through the VIPS.

    Boats project "658/658M" equipped with missile complex D-2 with three ballistic missiles R-13 (4K50, Western designation SS-N-4) with surface-launch - the world's first specialized BR intended for weapons submarines. TTZ was to develop a set. approved January 11, 1956 Originally the work was done:. NII-88 under the leadership of Sergei Korolev, later the subject was transferred to SKB-385, headed by VP Makeev. Single-stage rocket with a launch weight of 13,700 kg carrying detachable warhead, curb powerful (1 Mt) thermonuclear charge. Firing range was 650 km, circular error probable (CEP) was 4 km, which ensured the defeat only area targets (in the first place - the major cities located on the coast of the enemy, as well as naval bases). Rocket engine worked on the "thin" - TG-02 fuel (mixture of xylidine and triethylamine) and AK-27And oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxide solution in concentrated nitric acid). Since the pair used propellants spontaneously ignite connections is a source of increased fire danger, it was decided to keep the mine rocket tucked only oxidant. Fuel housed in special containers (separately for each of the three missiles) outside the pressure hull of the submarine, and served on the rocket during prelaunch.

    first two submarines of Project 658 entered in the Northern Fleet, and in 1960 - 1961. were sent to the base faces West, where together with torpedo submarine project 627A formed a brigade. In January 1962 on the basis of, the brigade was deployed 1st submarine flotilla, consisting of two divisions - 3rd (draft boats 627A) and 31 minutes (SSBN 658-year project). In 1964, the division of nuclear submarines were transferred to Gadzhiyevo (Saida Bay, Yagelnaya base) in the 12th Squadron, later transformed into a third fleet of nuclear submarines. -Emergence as a part of the Soviet Navy nuclear submarines first, of course, did not go unnoticed by the U.S. Naval Intelligence. Soon new ships has been assigned the code "nickname" NATO - Hotel.

    combat capabilities submarines of Project 658 significantly limited missile system characteristics. From surfacing submarine to launch a third missile took place about 12 minutes, which made the ship, located in the immediate vicinity of the coast of the enemy (which was due to short-range flight BR), an excellent target for anti-aircraft U.S.. In 1958 started the development of a new missile complex D-4 missiles R-21, having the ability to start out of the water and have increased range. In February 1962 a new missile was demonstrated Khrushchev, and in 1963 - entered service. It is possible to start re SSBN complex D-4. 658M modernization project was implemented with the overhaul of the boats in the 1965 - 1970s.

    launch of R-21 was carried out by the so-called. "Wet" type, from the mine, which is filled with water before starting. Single stage BR had a launch weight of 19,650 kg and could deliver a combat unit capacity of 0.8 Mt at a distance of 1420 km. CWE was 1.3 km.

    In connection with the installation of a boat of the D-4 was required to ensure retention of the ship at a given depth during rocket launch out of the water (the net effect of pulse forces generated by the missile launch, led to the fact that the boat podvsplyvala almost 16 m that hampered the subsequent launch rockets in a salvo). As a result, for SSBN 658M project was developed so-called. containment system that provides automatic saving a predetermined depth.

    During the design of the nuclear submarine modernization were made, and other improvements. In particular, the system changed ship prelaunch and maintenance (KSPPO). Water filling the annular space (the space between the wall of the shaft and the housing missiles) were set before the start of a special tank with pumping system.

    In

    SSBN 658M project were converted all eight boats 658-year project (in the West they were designated Hotel II).

    Despite the high noise, outdated equipment, relatively low habitability conditions and a number of other shortcomings, the boat project "658/658M" in the 70s. remained fully combat ready combat units of the fleet, to successfully solve their tasks. Patrolling in the vicinity of the coast of the United States (sometimes crew members in periscopes could watch the coast of New England), these ships provide accommodation for them missiles extremely short flight time, making it difficult for the organization of a potential enemy countermeasures missile attack (although making a comeback to the SSBN native shores after a combat mission thing very problematic).

    Terms of habitability in the first Soviet missile nuclear-powered icebreaker in general slightly different from the conditions on large diesel-electric submarines of postwar buildings. However, each crew member SSBN project "658/658M" had his own bed, but the content of Soviet nuclear submarines for provision of cameras in 60 - 70th. largely compensated inconveniences. Sailors were supplied in abundance excellent Moldovan "cabernet", caviar (both red and black), and other delicacies, which boasted not every metropolitan restaurant 1970s. However, in the 1980s. a "gastronomic abundance" was gradually giving way to more modest ration corresponding to change the attitude "party and government leaders" to "Defenders of the Motherland underwater frontiers." However, an alternative deficit "Cabernet" has always been a proven naval "awl».

    K-19 1960/1991

    April 12, 1961, in the area of the Barents Sea, "K-19" almost collided c Nautilus. After evasive "K-19" sank sharply and hit his nose on the ground. Fortunately nothing exploded.

    July 4, 1961, under the command of Captain 2nd Rank Zateeva Nicholas, "K-19" crept Danish Strait - continued teaching "Arctic Circle". PE happened in the early morning near the Norwegian island of Jan Mayen. In said watch 4.07: in the first reactor coolant pressure falls. What threatens this sudden submarine accident on board knew each. If melted uranium fuel elements (cartridges), there will be a nuclear explosion. Fly in the air not only submarine with missiles and torpedoes, but the nearest U.S. naval base on the island of Jan Mayen.

    How cool and insulate the heated reactor submarine explosion, decide on your own risk. The only way out - take the heat generated by fuel rods by pumping water core.

    Molten

    reactor dosed three groups - 2-3 people each. The only remedy - army gas mask - and then had to pull off the head: radioactive steam enveloped glass.

    Command "K-19" has decided to follow the reverse course of rapprochement with the ships in the area of the exercise. Soon distress signal responded to our two diesel submarines. First moved aboard overexposed. The rest of the men left the home "K-19" in the buff. The last boat left the commander. "K-19" was dragged to his native shores in tow.

    Irradiated

    divers sent to the Moscow Institute of Biophysics. Eight of them died in a few days. Buried in secret from relatives graves discovered later, and then by accident - one of his fellow soldiers buried there relative here and stumbled on the rough iron monuments with the names of the victims. Less exposed initially placed in the hospital Polar village, and then transferred to the Military Medical Academy, the Kirov in Leningrad.

    When

    Academician Alexandrov (he headed the government commission) on board the destroyer measured the radiation field near the submarine, then gasped as it is at such irradiation not only the crew survived, but the icebreaker saved from disaster. Aleksandrov reported Khrushchev: submariners made quite a feat. About it "forgot" for 37 years: a reward for saving "K-19" was awarded only recently.

    K-19 sailors received ominous nickname "Hiroshima" and the reputation of the unfortunate ship. During the repair boats were replaced both reactors, and today they rest on the bottom of the bay Abrosimova Novaya Zemlya. Nuclear fuel are not unloaded, so that after many decades of "Hiroshima" can still make itself felt.

    November 15, 1969 «K-19" encountered in the Barents Sea (abeam Cape Tyberuisky) with an American submarine Gato, who attempted to carry out covert tracking Soviet nuclear-powered ships. Both ships were damaged.

    Vladimir Vladimirovich, we are confident that you, as a son of a submariner, a military man, the idea of conservation "K-19" is close and clear. But as President of a great country once you have the opportunity to appeal to politicians around the world to support our initiative to establish a monument "cold" war, engage in this noble cause of all who cherish the fate of the planet. Submariners help you with this. They are and always have been at the forefront of global confrontation, and that the initiative of this peaceful action comes from them, and finds an echo in the hearts of sailors once warring fleets, and the common people of all countries who dream of happiness and a cloudless sky for their children.

    Crewmembers "K-19" in 1961, the participants of the accident:

    V. Sagittarius, Yu Filin, A. Ivanov, A. Ring, N. Karpyuk, B. Kuzmin, L. Sologub, E. Boiler, V. Kondrashov, Yuri Mukhin, N. Glushenkov.

    Commanders "K-19" in the seventies - the nineties:

    Yu Beketov, O. Adamov, V. Vaganov, E. Kovalev.

    Head of Administration

    years. Polar and Snezhnogorsk:

    Yu Yurlin and B. Skulls.

    K-33 1961/1990

    K-55 1962/1990

    "K-55" at the shipyard in Bolshoi Kamen (Primorye) in 1970. has been converted into a torpedo submarine project 658T. In 1977, undergone a conversion project 658U (COP), it was transformed into a ship communications. At the same torpedoes was saved, but the torpedo ammunition reduced.

    K-178 1962/1990

    "K-178" at the shipyard in Bolshoi Kamen (Primorye) in 1970. has been converted into a torpedo submarine project 658T. In 1977, undergone a conversion project 658U (COP), it was transformed into a ship communications. At the same torpedoes was saved, but the torpedo ammunition reduced.

    K-40 1962/1990

    K-16 1963/1990

    K-145 1963/1990

    In 1969 - 1970 years. "K-145" has been modernized under the project 701, becoming virtually a new ship. The modernization of her six launchers mounted 4C-75-1. Despite the fact that by the end of March 1971 the boat has been factory tested, rockets are not utilized as ground tests were completed only in November of the same year. First start with a boat on 25 December 1971. Since the White Sea was covered by ice, produced starting from a surface position. During the fifth launch rocket exploded at the exit from the mine. The boat was damaged left for repair at Sevmash, where he remained until August 3, 1972. August 21 of the same year was done six starts. He and all subsequent including salvo was successful. This phase of testing was completed November 28, 1972, was made just 13 starts.

    K-149 1964/1990





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