.

Submarine Ruff 671

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    Country

    Russia

    type

    attack submarines

    feature

    submarine

    General characteristics

    Length (m):

    92,5

    Width (m):

    10,6

    Displacement (tons):

    6085

    Speed (knots):

    33,5

    Immersion depth (m):

    400

    Draft (m):

    7,1

    nuclear reactor:

    2 OK-300

    Crew:

    76

    Vooruzhenie

    torpedo tubes:

    6 533 mm

    PAC:

    RPK-2 blizzard

    671 submarine ruff

    If domestic nuclear-powered torpedo first generation created to combat enemy surface ships, in the second half of the 50s. it became obvious that the Soviet Union needed submarines with "anti-submarine slope" that can combat missile submarine "potential enemy" in positions likely use their weapons to ensure the deployment of its own SSBN (carrying resistance underwater and surface forces acting on anti-borders), as well as to protect the ships and transports from enemy submarines. Of course, do not remove the traditional torpedo submarines of the fight against enemy surface ships (primarily - aircraft carriers), action on the communications, of the minefields, etc. work on the investigation of the second generation nuclear submarines appearance began in the USSR in the late 50 -ies. August 28, 1958, in accordance with government regulations for new submarines unfolded unified design steam supply system. Around the same time, a competition was announced projects boats 2nd generation, which was attended by leading design teams of the country, specializing in underwater shipbuilding - SKB-143, CDB-18 and SKB-112 "Sudoproekt." Greatest technical potential possessed Leningrad SKB-143, which is based on his earlier (1956 - 1958). Elaborations initiative, carried out under the leadership of AB Petrov, prepared technical proposals for torpedo (Project 671) and rocket (Project 639) submarines .

    Distinctive features of these projects have improved hydrodynamics, to work with the involvement of experts of the Moscow branch of TsAGI-shaft layout, the use of three-phase alternating current, and an increased diameter of the pressure hull, which provides lateral placement of two new, more compact unified nuclear submarines for the second generation reactors.

    671 submarine ruff

    The contest SKB-143 received the task of designing nuclear attack submarine project "671 Ruff". A distinctive feature of the new ship was supposed to be a powerful underwater acoustics (in terms of the competition for the first time explicitly stated dimensions ASG). If naAPL first generation was applied DC electrical system (which would be logical for the SSK, where the main source of energy by moving submerged were the batteries), then on the second generation of nuclear-powered ships, it was decided to move to three-phase alternating current. Tactical and technical requirements for a new icebreaker was approved November 3, 1959, in March 1960, was made a sketch, and in December of the same year - technical projects. Create submarines of Project 671 was conducted under the direction of chief designer GN Chernyshev. Based on the fact that the new submarine was intended primarily to destroy American SSBNs in their areas of combat patrol (ie, "clean water" and not under the Arctic ice), the customer, under heavy pressure from the developer, found it possible to waive the requirement for providing topside flooding when filled with water of any of the compartments of the boat. As for nuclear-powered ships 1st generation on the new boat was decided to use a two-reactor power plant, fully satisfying the requirements of reliability. Was created compact steam supply system with high per capita rates are more than twice the corresponding parameters of the preceding power plants. "As an exception," Navy Commander C. Gorshkov has agreed to use in the project 671 one propeller shaft, thus reducing noise and displacement. By switching to a single shaft scheme achieved and improved propulsion qualities ship about 30%, and (using a more powerful domestic energy) Receive significantly higher than their foreign counterparts, underwater speeds.

    671 submarine ruff

    The implementation of the single-shaft

    scheme allowed to place in the same compartment as the main unit and both turbozubchaty autonomous turbogenerator with all auxiliary equipment. This provided a decrease in the relative length of the hull. As a result, a large displacement of the new nuclear-powered full wetted surfaces ALL projects "Ruff 671" "671 Ruff" were approximately equal. Admiralty coefficient characterizing the power efficiency of the power plant of the ship, similar figure surpassed nuclear submarine of project 627 is approximately two times and actually caught up with American submarines type coefficient Skipjack. The design of the pressure hull, it was decided to apply the new steel grade AK-29, which allowed to increase the depth of the dive.

    Unlike first generation submarines, the new ship was decided to equip the autonomous (and not hung on the GTZA) turbine generators, increasing the reliability of the electricity system. When you create a project boat "671 Ruff" great importance attached to the development funds underwater detection and targeting, navigation equipment and commit weapons.

    According to the initial design studies torpedo planned to move to the center of the ship, as a U.S. submarine tipaPermit, placing them at angles to the Premier League. Later, however, it became clear that a similar arrangement with the speed of the submarine torpedo firing at the moment was not to exceed 11 knots (that proved unacceptable for tactical reasons: unlike American Soviet submarine boat was designed to combat not only submarines, but large enemy surface ships). In addition, when "American" seriously complicated arrangement torpedopogruzochnye work, and became completely impossible ammunition replenishment at sea. As a result torpedo naproekta "671 Ruff" it was decided to install in the bow of the ship, on sonar. In 1960 Leningrad Admiralty Plant construction started preparing a series of new nuclear submarines torpedo.

    671 submarine ruff

    double-hulled submarine with a characteristic "limousine" a superstructure had a robust housing made of high-strength steel AK-29, the thickness of the sheets which reached 35 mm. Inner flat bulkheads were calculated pressure 10 kgf/cm2. The ship's hull was divided into seven watertight compartments:

    - 1st torpedo, battery and residential;

    - 2nd central station, for provisions and auxiliary machinery;

    - third reactor;

    - 4th turbine (it is placed and autonomous turbines);

    - 5th electrical and auxiliary machinery (it was the same and sanblok);

    - 6th residential and diesel-generator;

    - 7th Tie (here are the propulsion motors and galley).

    Construction of the outer hull, bow part of the superstructure, the vertical and horizontal tail surfaces were made of magnetic steel. Fencing sliding devices logging and middle and aft part of the superstructure made of aluminum alloy, and bulky radome sonar system and rudders - from titanium alloys. Boat Project 671 (as well as its further modifications) was characterized by well crafted contours of the outer shell.

    Ballast tanks had

    Kingston (not scupper, as at any previous postwar Soviet submarine project) design.

    Compared with the first generation reactors layout of nuclear power plants of the second generation has been substantially changed. Although she remained a loop, were significantly reduced volumes and spatial distribution of the primary circuit (ie, the reactor became more compact and "dense"). Scheme was implemented "pipe in pipe" and produced "hanging" primary pumps for steam generators. Reduced the number of large-diameter pipelines connecting the main elements of the unit (filter 1st circuit, volume compensators, etc.). Almost all of the primary circuit piping (small and large diameter) were placed in uninhabited areas and closed biological protection. Significantly changed the system of instrumentation and automation of nuclear power plant. The proportion of remote-controlled valves (valves, valves, dampers, etc.).

    671 submarine ruff

    After 1976, in the course of modernization, most boats of the "671 Ruff" HOOK "Ruby" was replaced by a more perfect set of "Rubicon" with infrasound emitter, which has a maximum detection range of 200 km. Retractable periscope device included PNŢ-10 antenna system radioopoznavaniya MRP-10 with the defendant, radar "Albatros" radio communication antenna VAN-M or "anise" and "Willow" finder "veil" and DSA device. There were a number of slots for removable antennas installed in solving specific problems. Aboard the submarine was installed navigation system, providing kursoukazanie and reckoning.

    Torpedo complex occupied the top third of the first compartment. Torpedo tubes arranged in two horizontal rows. In the center plane of the ship, the first row of the SLT was horizontal torpedo loading hatch. In front of the bow hatch located Enclosed shields horizontal tray in which a crane dropped a torpedo loaded into the submarine. This design allowed to drastically reduce and simplify the process of loading ammunition without requiring much physical effort the team, difficult and dangerous operations. Everything was done remotely: torpedo dragged into the bay, to move on it, loaded into vehicles and fell on the shelves using hydraulic drives.

    torpedo fire control ensured putts "Brest-671».

    In ammunition consisted of 18 torpedoes or up to 36 minutes (12 of them - in TA). Staging min could be produced at a rate of up to 6 knots.

    Compared to most modern American counterpart - Soviet submarine had a higher underwater speed (respectively 29 and 33.5 knots), a somewhat greater depth of immersion and commensurate ammunition. At the same time, the U.S. ALL had less noise and more sophisticated sonar equipment, which provided her the best search capabilities. Among Soviet submariners view was that "if the American boat has detection range of 100 km, our - only 10 km." This was probably an exaggeration, but the problem of secrecy and increase the detection range of the enemy boats on the project "671 Ruff" in full and did not resolve.

    three ships ("K-314", "K-454" and "K-469"), intended for the Pacific Fleet, were completed on the revised draft 671V. The difference was in their equipment, in addition to traditional torpedoes and rocket-torpedo complex "Blizzard", taken into service August 4, 1969 launch torpedo ensured defeat underwater, surface and coastal targets at ranges of nuclear charge of 10-40 km. Its launch was carried out from the standard 533-mm torpedo tubes from a depth of 50 - 60 m

    K-38 1967/1992

    In 1979, during another escalation of Soviet-American relations, "K-38" and "K-481" conducted combat service in the Persian Gulf, where at that time there were up to 50 U.S. Navy ships . Swimming was held in extremely difficult conditions (water temperature at the surface reached 40 °). According to the memoirs marcher AN Shportko (commander of the K-481), in boats energootsekah air heated to 60 - 70 °, and in residential areas - up to 40-50 °. Conditioners running at full capacity, but equipment (designed for use mainly in the northern latitudes) could not cope: chillers started normally only work at a depth of 60 m, where the temperature of the seawater was lowered to 10-15 °.

    boats had two interchangeable crew, located on the floating base "Berezina" stood in the Gulf of Aden or off the island of Socotra. Hike lasted six months and was generally very successful. According to AN Shportko Soviet submarines operating in the Persian Gulf is very secretive, if the U.S. Navy and showed them briefly, then could not correctly classify, much less a pursuit. Subsequently, these findings were confirmed and intelligence data. At the same time tracking the American ships was carried out on the application range missile and missile-torpedo weapons: in the case of receipt of the order they would be with a probability close to 100%, were sent to the bottom.

    K-369 1968/1994

    K-147 1968/1996

    "K-147", equipped with the latest, which has no analogues in the world tracking system for ALL enemy swirl, May 29 - July 1, 1985 under the command of Captain 2nd Rank Vladimir Nikitin took part in the exercises of submarine forces Northern Fleet "AltaVista", during which the completed six-day continuous monitoring of the American SSBN Simon Bolivar, using acoustic and nonacoustic means.

    K-53 1969/1994

    September 18 Soviet icebreaker "K-53" started forcing Gibraltar submerged at a depth of 60 meters, which was optimal for the Atlantic, but not for the Mediterranean, where another type of hydrology. In 19 hours and 45 minutes, it was clarified place nuclear-powered and the commander decided to float for a communication session in 1 hour 15 minutes. After graduating from crossing the strait he handed over the management to the Chief Officer, who own at 0 hours 49 minutes and changed the course of podvsplyl a depth of 40 meters. He explained that this is the need to improve the listening dark corners fodder submarine. At 0 hours 58 minutes PCG commander arrived, but the situation is not penetrated and 17 minutes 1:00 "K-53" floated on the surface. The commander did not see lights and lighthouses Carnarvon Europe, doubted the place and all his attention was focused on refining the coordinates of the boat.

    Only in 1:00 for 33 minutes were accidentally discovered lights civilian ship on the starboard side, they saw the navigator after the six-minute search of stars for observation. At the same moment the bridge reported a strong noise in bearing 260 °. The team at "emergency dive" could not help avoid collisions and 34 minutes 1:00 "K-53" has received a strong blow in the bow of the hull. Soviet transport ship "Brotherhood", which belonged to the Black Sea Shipping Company, on chetyrnadtsatiuzlovoy speed boat rammed dipping. The collision submarine was damaged bow of the outer hull, where paneling was torn, broken and damaged the sonar dome antenna sonar, torpedo shields and other devices. "K-53" was forced to float and accompanied arrived floating workshop "PM-24" arrived at the Soviet naval base.

    K-306 1969/1995

    K-323 50 years SSSR1970/1995

    In September-October 1971, K-38 and "50 years of the USSR" made autonomous ice trek to the Arctic.

    K-370 1970/1995

    K-438 1971/1995

    K-367 1971/1995

    K-314 1972/1989

    In early March 1984, in the Sea of Japan went carrier battle group consisting of the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk and seven warships escort for routine exercises with a landing on the coast of South Korea. To monitor the Americans went into the sea submarine "K-314" and BOD "Vladivostok". K-314 commanded by Captain 1st Rank Evseenko, hike provided the division commander, Captain 1st rank Belousov. Within a few days (reportedly the American press) escorts repeatedly found "K-314" and after fifteen times simulate its destruction - deliberately broke away from the submarine.

    For this aircraft carrier entered the territorial waters of South Korea. "K-314" remained outside the territorial waters and lost contact with the aircraft carrier, led the search for it. Search Depth was chosen incorrectly, excluding sea hydrology conditions that allow for optimal search of surface ships from the depth of 40 meters. At this depth, the carrier would be confidently detected at distances greater than 150 km.

    March 25 sea waves on the surface reached two points, visibility - night full. Start moving the aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk submarine "K-314", located at a depth of 9 meters, failed to fix. Command "K-314" found a group escorts about 22 hours 50 minutes and led them visual observation through the periscope. At this point, the submarine was near the aircraft carrier en route to the running lights turned off, at a distance of about 9-10 cables. AVM Kitty Hawk followed a course of 160 ° at a speed of 16 knots. Soviet icebreaker was in front of an aircraft carrier and not finding it in 23 hours 00 minutes abruptly changed course (250 °). After 3 minutes, "K-314" fell under the ramming attack aircraft carrier. Kitty Hawk submarine hit the aft starboard and got a small hole in the area of submarine aircraft fuel tank on the starboard side. USS continued to follow the course and damaged the submarine was forced to surface extra.

    Boat received a glancing blow as a result of damage to the lungs and cutting the outer hull, she had a crushed right horizontal stabilizer jammed right drive shaft and propeller shaft broken mortar with a propeller. Boat lost course and drifted helplessly on the surface.

    A few hours later to her rescue came a large anti-submarine ship "Petropavlovsk" and later the boat was towed by rescue vessel in Vladivostok for repairs.

    August 10, 1985 at ALL at the completion of work on Refuelling, due to violations of nuclear safety requirements and technology undermine the reactor lid, there was a spontaneous uncontrolled chain reaction of uranium fission reactor portside. As a result of thermal explosion formed radioactive shelf, the axis of which crossed the Danube peninsula in the north-west direction and went to the sea on the coast of Ussuri Bay. The length of the shelf on the peninsula was 5.5 km (hereinafter loss of aerosol particles occurred on the surface of the waters up to 30 km from the release point). In an accident killed ten people.

    K-398 1972/1995

    K-454 1973/1989

    K-462 1973/1996

    February 17, 1977 icebreaker "K-462" perform training tasks to the north of the peninsula Rybachy defining radiodeviatsiyu on alert number 2. Radar was not in service and observation was carried through the periscope and using underwater acoustics, but mine-detector path "echo" unused.

    May 6 submarines V. P. Gontareva entered Ava Chin-lip. May 7 and joined her second icebreaker.

    In January 1976 K-171 and "K-469", perform the functions of care, made the transition from the Northern Fleet to the Pacific Fleet. Across the Atlantic Ocean ships were at a distance of 18 cables from each other. Drake Passage passed at different depths, constantly keeping in touch by UZPS. After crossing the equator and followed the boat went to Kamchatka (where they arrived in March) each on their own route. During the 80 days had passed 21,754 miles, and for the entire transition "K-469" only once (in the region of Antarctica) surfaced to periscope depth.

    K-481 1974/1993





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