| SVD sniper rifle |
In 1958, Grau (Main Missile and Artillery Directorate) of the General Staff of the Soviet Army has announced a contest to create a semi-automatic sniper rifle for the Soviet Army. The competition won collective headed by EF Dragunov - chief designer, team leader developers target sporting guns, has introduced a new sniper rifle - SVD.
In 1963 SVD (Dragunov Sniper Rifle) was adopted by the Soviet Army.
1 - Frame 6B1. 2-7 2 - drummer 6B1 2-5, 3 - cover 6B1. Sat 5;
4 - rod guide 6B1. 5-6, 5 - Bush guide
6B1. 5-5, 6 - Shutter 6B1. 2-1, 7 - axis ejector 6B1. 2-3;
8 - pin striker 6B1. 2-6, 9 - spring ejector 6B1. 2-4;
10 - ejector 6B1. 2-2, 11 - spring return 6B1. 5-4;
12 - Collar strap sighting 6B1. 48, 13 - strap sighting
6B1. 1-21, 14 - left pad assembly 6B1. Sat 1-3, 15 - spring
Pusher 6B1. 1-24, 16 - gas tube latch 6B1. 1-38;
17 - 6B1 gas chamber. 1-15, 18 - 6B1 gas piston. 1-22;
19 - 6B1 gas tube. 1-25, 20 - 6B1 gas regulator. 1-53;
21 - body flies 6B1. 1-20, 22 - fly 6B1. 1-17, 23 - pusher
6B1. 1-23, 24 - the front sight base 6B1. 1-16, 25 - trunk 6B1. 1-1;
26 - upper ring assembly 6B1. Sat 1-1, 27 - check ring 6Bl.
Sat 1-7, 28 - seal assembly 6B1. Sat 1-8, 29 - pad right in
Assembly 6B1. Sat 1-4, 30 - with a spring ring, lower 6B1. Sat 1-5;
31 - Body Shop 6B1. Sat 6-1, 32 - spring store 6B1. 6-12;
33 - cover store 6B1. 6-11, 34 - strap assembly 6B1. Sat 6-3;
35 - feeder 6B1. Sat 6-2 36 - 6B1 box. 1-2, 37 - plate in
Assembly 6B1. Sat 3, 38 - trigger mechanism 6B1. Sat 4;
39 - check the cover 6B1. Sat 1-2, 40 - butt 6B1. Sat 7.
SVD is a semi-automatic weapon with automatic vapor, with a short course not connected rigidly to the bolt carrier gas piston (to reduce the weight of the moving parts of automatics). The design of the gas outlet assembly is provided on-off gas regulator. Locking barrel - rotating bolt having three lugs.
Several features in the device resembles a Kalashnikov rifle SVD - Automatic also acts by removal of powder gases through a hole in the side wall of the barrel bore is locked by turning the gate, and the gate, turning when unlocking several ultimate joint sleeve ago, facilitating its subsequent recovery from the chamber. Similar shape and speed. The main difference between automatic SVD - it's bolt carrier, perceiving the impact of powder gases through the gas piston and pusher. Tappet and plunger are made as separate parts with its own spring and returned to its original position immediately after garbage frames ago. Return mechanism bolt includes two springs, it provides smooth operation automation.
firing mechanism - a hammer type, with the same shape of the mainspring, like the AK-47. USM is in a separate building, which reduces the load on him while shooting. An original feature is the use of the hammer as a disconnector sear with the trigger.
On the barrel is attached a cylindrical slotted flash suppressor. It has five longitudinal slots arranged and profiled so that the arrestor also plays a role compensator. Moreover, it masks the shot when shooting at night and protects the trunk from pollution.
safety lever dual action: it simultaneously locks the trigger and restricts the movement of the bolt back, closing notch receiver. Descent provides production shot only when fully latched gate.
Forearm, consisting of two halves, equipped with a large number of longitudinal slots for cooling, the stock frame with an integrated pistol grip originally made from molded plywood. In the 1990s, plywood replaced glass fiber reinforced polyamide.
rifle butt has a wooden framework complex shapes. Cutout in the butt and the front of his face to form the pistol grip. Attached on the butt "cheek". Buttplate and "cheek" is not regulated. In more modern rifles and butt pad made of plastic.
COG charged rifle is almost exactly at the store level.
Shop accommodates ten rounds, staggered.
Optical sight PSO-1
Receiver milled steel.
rifle equipped rifle carrying strap.
melee SVD can be attached to the bayonet.
The rifle is equipped with non-replaceable
open iron sights as flies in namushnike and adjustable rear sight, located in front of the receiver cover. Scope mount attached to the receiver on the left. Apart from the main optical sight PSO-1, fixed 4X (PSO-1M2, 1P21) and reticle type LED can be mounted night sights bespodsvetochnym NSPU, NSPUM or NSPU NW (1PN75).
SVD sniper rifle with night sights set labeled as SVDN.
| SVDN |
With an installed night sight
with a sniper rifle used rifle cartridges caliber 7.62h54R (7.62h53) with ordinary, tracer and armor-piercing incendiary bullets and sniper cartridges (7N1, 7N14).
part of powder gases following the bullet rushes through the gas escape hole in the wall of the barrel into the gas chamber pressure on the front wall of the gas piston and the piston drops pusher, and along with them and the frame to the rear position.
After pushing back frame shutter opens the bore, remove from the chamber pocket and throws it out of the receiver and the frame compresses the return springs and cocks (puts his platoon on the self-timer).
In the forward position with the gate frame back under the influence of the return mechanism, the shutter shall be sent with the next cartridge from the magazine into the chamber and closes the bore and the frame displays the sear out of the self-timer self-timer cocking the hammer and the hammer becomes cocked. Locking shutter is his turn to the left and going down lugs shutter cutouts receiver.
to produce the next shot is necessary to release the trigger and press it again. After the liberation of the trigger rod moves forward and its hook snaps over the sear, and pressing the trigger sear hook rod rotates and separates them with the hammer cocked. Trigger, turning on its axis under the action of the mainspring, hit the hammer, and the latter moves forward and produces pinned the primer of the cartridge. Occurs shot.
| SVD |
With plastic butt and lining
Later modernized version
When fired the last bullet, the shutter will depart back feeder holds up shop bolt stop, bolt rests on the frame and it stays in the rear position. This is a signal that it is necessary to charge the rifle again.
| Caliber, mm || 7.62x54R |
| Weight unloaded and sight, kg || 3.8 |
| Length mm < td> 1220 |
| Barrel length, mm || 620 |
| Muzzle velocity, m / s || 830 |
| Sighting range, m |
- With open sight
- With optical sight
- With night sight
| rds / min || 30 |
| Capacity count. cartridges || 10 |
According to most experts, the rifle, which is ergonomically designed: arrow weapons inspires complete confidence, well balanced, easily held in the manufacture of sighting shots. Compared with the conventional shopping sniper rifle, practical rate which is about 5 rounds / min, Dragunov rifle, according to experts, up to 30 aimed shots per minute.
SVD has good accuracy of fire: at a distance of 1000 m results mean deviation does not exceed 560 mm.
SVD is widely used in almost all military operations conducted by the Soviet and Russian armies since its adopting, and has proved extremely reliable and easy to handle samples of small arms.
On the basis of the Dragunov sniper rifle released a number of versions - SVD-S with a shortened barrel and side-folding butt, civilian hunting rifles "Bear" and "Tiger".
Copies and clones SVD steel vypuskayutsya and abroad, while some of them are quite as exact copies (for example, the Chinese Type 85 rifle caliber 7.62h54R and NDM-86 caliber 7.62x51) and simulation-based design of the Kalashnikov assault rifle, such Romanian rifle as FPK.
Dragunov sniper rifle