In the second half of the twenties, the Red Army began to actively break down the British and French tanks captured by the Red Army during the Civil War. Therefore, General Directorate of the military industry has decided to accelerate the work on the design and construction of a new tank, in which was based on acquired in 1925 by the Polish Communists in the gift of the Red Army tank Fiat 3000. Italian car was better than his French prototype - Renault FT17, had a lower weight and greater speed. In March 1927, was a prototype tank, and after the trial he was awarded the T-18 (MS-1, low maintenance, however, informally and jokingly called it too maneuverable Soviet). First tank was made by the Leningrad Bolshevik, but in April 1929 with the release of T-18 was also connected Motovilikhinsky Machine-Building Plant in Perm and plan production of tanks was increased. However, in 1929 the mass production of T-18 was unable to deploy there in 1929 and ordered 133 of the tanks were hard put 96. Nevertheless, the plant mastered Motovilikhinsky tank and in 1929-30. plan to issue T-18 was increased to 300 units. Total for the period 1928-1931 in the region. 959 units were manufactured. Cost of the first Soviet tank MC-1 was 60-80 thousand rubles.
two modifications tank: tank sample in 1927, with a riveted hull and turret and the tank sample in 1030, with an engine capacity of 40 liters. s. and increased ammo: 104 rounds shot and 2016.
crew consisted of two people: a driver and commander. The latter also had to fire the cannon and machine gun. 37-mm gun Hotchkiss or PS-1 mounted in a mantle result. It allows you to change the angle aiming horizontally within 35 degrees and the vertical angle of elevation 30 degrees and reduce -8 degrees. Gun sighting device consisted of the diopter and foresight established mantle result in outlet openings for aiming. To point a weapon at a target, the gunner using shoulder rest moved it horizontally and vertically. If you had to turn the tower, he did it with a lever with your left hand, previously leaning back in her wall. Machine gun armament on the T-18 was a special installation of gunsmiths Fedorov, D. Ivanov and G. Shpagin. At its foundation was laid under the gun Fedorov 6.5 mm cartridge. Two barrel guns were located in a single receiver placed in a ball bearing. Its closure at the tanks in 1927 allowed the sample need to transfer a machine gun in the back face of the tower. Food it carried out two magazine capacity of 25 rounds each. He had a shoulder rest, pistol grip and diopter sight. With the modernization of the tank was set 7.62 mm tank gun V. Degtyarev (DT) with a round cartridge magazine for 6h. It was a modification of the machine gun DP. The main difference from the prototype was the lack of housing in the trunk and the introduction of the sliding metal butt. With it provides for the regulation of its length as for the convenience of the fire, and a decrease in the total length of the tank when the gun stowed in motion. Diopter sight DT could be established for firing at a range of 400, 600, 800 and 1000 meters.
maximum speed of the tank was 17.5 km / h, which was enough for the main purpose of the tank: infantry support in battle. MS-1 sample in 1927 had a domestic four-cylinder petrol engine air cooling capacity of 35 liters. s. On the nose of the crankshaft installed coupling for connecting the trigger transmission through which the shaft transferred power from the charging handle internal introduced engage foot pedal. Besides could start by the electric starter. Once the engine is gaining momentum, magneto cut off, and the system equipment includes starter dynamo (generator).
tank equipped with Radio Station was not used for external communication signal flags.
armor plates hull and turret had a thickness of 16, and the roof and the bottom 3 mm. At the bottom of the emergency exit hatch was located. The T-18M maximum thickness of armor reached 14 mm.
Since 1931 tank builders started to produce large series of tanks of various types, but works with the MS-1 is not stopped. In order to increase its effectiveness fire initially developed design for the installation of its 76-mm regimental, and somewhat later, 37-mm semiautomatic gun B NW. Has undergone changes and chassis. For example, has been successfully tested suspension and caterpillar-type T-26 tank with a cart, having a plate spring. Finally, in 1938 underwent some changes in shape of the hull and turret, as well as increased mobility by installing a new carburetor engine from the car M1. In this upgrading MC-1 was completed. After some time, is often found in the ranks of combat vehicles passed in the organization and training of the Osoaviahima for initial learning driving skills.
| Sample Tank || 1927 || 1930 || T-18M |
| Year || 1927 || 1930 || 1933 |
| Combat weight t || 5,9 || 5,9 || 5,8 |
| Crew. || 2 || 2 || 2 |
| length || 3500 || 3500 || 3520 |
| Width || 1800 || 1800 || 1750 |
| Height || 2200 || 2200 || 2080 |
| Clearance || 305 || 305 || 300 |
| Maximum speed km / h || 16,4 || 22 || 24 |
| fording, m || 0,8 || 0,8 || 0,8 |
| Gun || 37 mm Hotchkiss or PS-1 || 37 mm. Hotchkiss or PS-1 || 45 mm. sample 1932 |
| Muzzle velocity projectile fragmentation, m / s || 442 || 442 || 335 |
| Muzzle velocity armor-piercing projectile, m / s || - || - || 760 |
Range of fire
| Direct fire || 2000 || 2000 || 3600 |
| Most || - || - || 4800 |
| Rate of fire / min || 10-12 || 10-12 || 12 |
Projectile weight, kg
| Frag || 0,51 || 0,51 || 1,42 < / tr> |
| armor piercing || - || - || 2,13 |
| gun || 6,5 mm with two barrels of Fedorov || 7,62 mm Degtyarev DT system || 7,62 mm DT tr > |
| Ammunition, cartridges || 2016 || 2016 || 1449 |
| Engine || Carburetor, temperature. Cooling. || Carburetor, temperature. Cooling. || M-1 driving. Cooling. |
| Maximum power l. with. || 35 || 40 || 50 |
| Cruising on the highway, km || 120 || 120 || 120 |
In November 1929 nine such cars were involved in a military conflict USSR and China because of the CER. Chinese Eastern Railway (CER) was built in Russia 1987-1903 years under a contract in accordance with the Russian-Chinese military contract in 1896. For its construction Russia spent 375 million rubles in gold. Laying CHIN helped revive the economy northeastern regions of China, the emergence and growth of cities. In May 1924, was signed in Beijing Sino-Soviet agreement under which the CER has been viewed as a joint business venture. However, from next year, our partners embarked on a breach of this agreement, committing a series of provocations on the CER, as well as on the borders of Primorye and Trans. By late summer 1929 Mukden Army already had 300,000 people. Border conflicts near the station Manchuria began to occur more and more often, and were used by the enemy artillery and armored. November 15 under the guise of his battalion artillery tried to seize the Soviet village Abagaytuevsky patrol and N 86. As it became known, the Chinese military leadership planned strike swiftly from the area Chzhalaynor-Manzhouli, walk to Lake Baikal and cut the Trans-Siberian Railway, blowing up tunnels. Special Far Eastern Army Command was forced to take appropriate countermeasures.
Transbaikalskaya group Odwan by this time concentrated around Daura - Borza - Abagaytuevsky. It consisted of the 35th and 36th Infantry Divisions, the 5th Separate Cavalry Brigade, 26th legkobombardirovochnaya Squadron, 18th Artillery Battalion of the body, the body of the 18th Engineer Battalion, 1st railway company, Private Buryat-Mongol Cavalry Division, three armored trains. The camp near Chita in reserve stood 21th Infantry Division Perm separate company and MS-1 tanks. It should be noted that the parts were manned peacetime. In total there are 6033 infantry and 1599 cavalry. At the armed group had 166 manual and 331 machine guns, 88 guns, 32 planes and 9 MS-1 tanks. Against Zabaikalskaya group Odwan Chinese command group launched in 59,000 soldiers. In its arsenal was: 170 machine guns, 70 guns, 100 mortars, two armored and three aircraft. Directly near Chzhalaynor, Hailar and Manchuria station opponent kept grouping of 15-17 thousand people.
On the adjacent side
lay open, monotonous terrain difficult for orientation day and especially at night. The eastern part of the area (the valley between the rivers Argun and turbid flow) was flooded by rains. When hit 20 degrees of frost, all the space turned into a field of ice. In addition, in areas Chzhalaynor and Chinese Manchuria powerful fortifications erected, believing that if their initial attack fails, they will try to wear down the enemy in battle fortified positions, and then deal a decisive blow. The total depth of the enemy defense reached from two to five kilometers. Were dug anti-tank ditches to four meters wide, and between them set minefields and landmines. Chinese unit equipped with trenches full profile traverses the longitudinal firing with light beams. All machine guns and mortars were in shelters that overlap one - two rows of logs or rails with a four-foot earthen embankment. Clay was frostbitten and Rockets field guns leave almost no trace on the ceiling. In these circumstances the command of the Trans-Baikal group decided to isolate sudden blow station garrisons and Chzhalaynor Manchuria, and then consistently defeat the enemy, both in them and in Hailar.
Army Gen. II Fedyuninsky, while the commander of the 6th Infantry Company of the 106th Regiment of the Sakhalin P6 th Infantry Division, on the night of November 17, was given the task to advance to secretly Abagaytuy patrols and destroy the railroad tracks. In the future, was to bypass the station Manchuria and disrupt message rail station Hailar. Roth was preparing to storm the small hills. Platoon commanders scheduled orientation and direction of motion. Platoons already poised to attack when we heard a noise in the rear of the engine and soon emerged from the hills our two tank MC-1. I motioned for them to stop - remember I. Fedyuninsky. - Tank commander reported that lagged behind their unit and do not know what to do. Support companies attack - ordered I have problems. Noticed that my soldiers cheered up considerably. With the enemy tanks rather go.
Attack the enemy
company met intense fire. It appears, however, that he made a mistake on the outskirts of large fortifications formed neprostrelivaemye space. Supported by tanks, leading fire with short stops arrows with almost no loss on the position of the Chinese broke through and vertically stacked chimneys threw grenades garrisons pillboxes. Simultaneously, the 107th Infantry Regiment attacked the hill N 9 and began to move towards the hills Iron. However, a tank company (without two tanks) were not able to reach the starting line. Unusual for the tank to move about in the dark for rudderless steppe slow march. Promotion shelf delayed. But at twelve o'clock, when the tankers supported the attack, he expanded the force of impact and mastered knoll N 9, came to the line of hills and Toad ring, which by mid-day possession of the 108th Infantry Regiment Beloretskij.
The next day, November 18, adding Ammunition and refuel, tankers again actively involved in the fighting. Beloretskij 108th Infantry Regiment, deployed in the hills Mother and Daughter, with the support of a tank company and aircraft rushed to the attack. By 12 o'clock in conjunction with the 5th Cavalry Brigade Kuban, bypassed Chzhalaynor, managed to take the city. Here is what his assault regiment commander Solovyov: When taking the first fortified heights opponent he had a strong resistance. Three of our batteries beaten on the heights where we were going to attack. But not artillery fire appalling Chinese, they fired back bravely. Our regiment was fighting for the first fortification about three hours. Thanks to the support of tanks isolation was accelerated. When the soldiers saw that the tanks crawling through the dugout Chinese, they rushed forward, and shelters were occupied.
Chzhalaynora Soviet command all attention to the garrison station Manchuria. November 19, at five in the morning of the 108th Infantry Regiment Beloretskij readied to attack. There was an acute shortage of artillery, and the success of action could only be ensured swift maneuver and close interaction with the tanks. Here's how to tell this Marshal Chuikov, who took part in the fighting at dawn artillery preparation began, backed by air strikes. Barrage lasted for an hour. I can not say that the attack was sudden. Chinese command apparently learned about the movement of our troops. Where positions were well equipped, the Chinese troops are poised to meet our attack. Most successfully advancing, 36th Infantry Division, supported by a tank company MC-1. This fight was the most interesting at all. The first time we were able to observe the interaction of infantry and tanks. Author of memoirs, apparently, did not observe the action of tanks 17 and 18 November. So for them it does not mention. He is mistaken in the number of tanks. After the artillery barrage - recalls Chuikov - with starting positions moved 10 tanks. Their attack was sudden for Chinese soldiers, surprised it no less, and the Red Army. I was at an observation post near Blucher. We have seen how the Chinese soldiers and officers leaned almost half the growth of the trenches to see the tanks. We expected them to flee in panic, but the surprise was probably stronger, that it seemed to have paralyzed their will. The Red Army did not keep tanks and some spellbound looking at moving steel turtles breathe fire. I ask readers to remember that was just 1929. Peasant boys who served in the army knew about the tanks only by hearsay. This was the year when our fields appear first tractors and people believed rumors that from them propahnet kerosene bread. Tanks easily reached Chinese positions and opened fire along the trenches. Machine-gun fire sobered Chinese. They fled in panic. Ten tanks broke through the enemy defenses without any casualties on our side. Our parts belatedly moved the tanks, suppressing the resistance of the individual nodes in the Chinese defense significantly paralyzed tank attack.
Litvinov, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, last rebuff, our active military units Chinese raiders persuaded seems Manchu generals that resist the Red Army with the chances of success, they can not, and they have made this appropriate conclusions. And we will draw our conclusions. And they are. The first domestic production tanks MC-1 completed their tasks. Assault fortified positions showed that they are adequately protected against small arms fire, can effectively support advancing infantry to suppress the firing points and destroy enemy manpower. At the same time, the presence of tanks in combat formations attacking offered them some moral support. This is evidenced by the Captain of the 108th Infantry Regiment Beloretskogo: By its actions, the tanks provided great moral support to soldiers and their fire and views have made a complete demoralization in the ranks of the enemy ... In cleaning dugouts greatly helped the same tanks - two or three shots at close range into the dugout, stopping all enemy resistance.
three-day battle at low temperatures Transbaikalia showed satisfactory performance of military vehicles. At the same time, some design flaws often led to the exit of the machine system. Of the ten tanks taking part in hostilities, for these reasons at different times of the order went seven. It turned out that a very imperfect diopter sight, providing accurate fire at ranges up to only 750-800 meters. It was necessary to increase the power of action projectile tank gun on the target.
Sources: - Fast AA Illustrated Encyclopedia tanks. Krasnoyarsk, Bonus. 2002 - Ryndin I.. MS-1 tank. Textbook for OSOAVIAHIMovskih armored circles. Moscow, 1938 - Encyclopedia of tanks. Compiled Holyavsky GL Minsk. Harverst. 2003 - M. Svirin, A. Beskurnikov. The first Soviet tanks. Armada 1995 - VA Anfilov. The failure of the blitzkrieg. Pergamon. 1974