the mid 60s to replace the medium and heavy tanks, created on the basis of the experience of war, came the main tanks of the second post-war generation.
and most massive members of this generation are a family of tanks T-72. The development of these tanks began in 1967 in a tank KB Ural Railcar by Leonid Nikolaevich Kartseva after gaps were identified and summarized the experience of operation of the first national primary tankaT-64. KB was a collective creative fusion of experienced designers, started to work more with the legendary Mikhail Ivanovich Koshkin, and younger pupils Alexander Alexandrovich Morozov and L. N.Kartseva. But to bring the tank to production L. N.Kartsevu was not fated. The entire burden of setting the sample for mass production fell to his deputy Valery for new technology Nikolavicha Venediktova, who became chief designer. From 1987 to 2000 he was Chief Designer Vladimir Potkin, who on the basis of operating experience and test the first T-72 tanks identified ways to further develop them. Currently headed by Vladimir Borisovich KB Domnin.
series of tanks T-64 and prototypes developed in Nizhny Tagil, showed a higher efficiency of the latter, and after extensive testing industry and government in 1973, the sample was put into service under the brand name T-72. Inherent in the design of the T-72 reserve will further hold it repeatedly modernization and significantly improve the combat capabilities. Today upgraded T-72 tanks in service with the Russian Army and the armies of other countries and are considered one of the best tanks in the world. In some countries they are issued and licensing.
From 1979 to 1985 for series production was T-72A. The main differences from the base sample consisted of the installation: a laser rangefinder sight TPDK-1 night sight-gunner TPN-3-49 with illuminator A-4, solid board protivokumulyativnyh screens; system 902B launch smoke grenades; 2A46 cannon instead 2A26M2; night instrument the driver TVNE-4B; engine V-46-6. Based on the T-72A manufactured export version of the T-72M, wherein the tower design, assembly and ammunition system of collective defense, and then the T-72M1 with an additional 16-mm armor plate on the upper front part of the combined body armor and a tower with sand cores as filler.
Since 1985 produced T-72B, which is from the T-72A differed mainly installation: 2E42-2 stabilizer instead 2E28M; guided weapons; removable container dynamic protection, V-84 engine instead of B-46-6 . The export version of the tank - T-72S (the original name of the T-72M1M) book of the T-72M1 and reduced to 155 containers mounted reactive armor instead of 227 for the T-72B.
Since 1993 Production Association Uralvagonzavod produced T-90 tank. Tanks in this series were exported to countries of the former Warsaw Pact, India, Iraq, Syria, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Finland, Yugoslavia.
On the basis of the T-72 was developed by a whole galaxy of military tracked vehicles trucks: command tanks T-72K and T-72AK, recovery vehicle ARV-1 armored vehicle launched bridge MTU-72, engineering vehicle IMR-2 etc .
Tank T-72 has classic scheme of the overall layout with rear transverse engine. Place the driver is in front, in the middle of the driver's compartment. In the fighting compartment to the right of the guns taken workplace tank commander, left - gunner. At the bottom of the crew compartment a rotating conveyor autoloader, the introduction of which has reduced the height of the tank and the amount booked.
below detail the design and performance characteristics are one of the latest models of the series tank - the T-72B, on which the gun-launcher, will significantly improve the range of fire and the probability of hitting the target guided projectile.
fighting properties TANK
Firepower, ie adaptation of the tank to detect and engage a predetermined amount of funds designated by opposing, from a technical standpoint is mainly determined by the quantity and quality of weapons mounted on the tank and service delivery systems.
main armament is a special tank 125-mm smoothbore gun-launcher 2A46M. The use of such guns allowed to increase range of defeat armored targets up to 4,000 m with the probability of hitting the target type tank of 0.8. In addition, the original design of tools that allows replacement of the barrel field in a time not more than 5 hours, thanks to the introduction of the quick screw connection with the breech of the gun barrel.
gun used in the gate mechanism to ensure its opening in two cycles, which have greatly reduced attached to this effort. Brake cylinders mounted symmetrically rollback the bore, which resulted in improved accuracy of fire due to the lack of torque on the gun during recoil. Themselves recoil device designed in such a way that provide uninhibited rollback to departure of the projectile out of the barrel.
Gun T-72B tank is equipped with a built-in control unit, which allows for the reconciliation of the line of sight without departing from the tank crew. Shooting from the tank being artvystrelami separately cased-loader with armor-piercing, cumulative, high-explosive shells and bullets with a guided missile having a shaped-charge warhead. All artvystrelami have a single charge with a partially combustible sleeve. Pan liner after being shot through the mechanism of capture is automatically ejected to the outside through a special hatch in the roof of the tower.
Shot with a guided missile Zubkov-14 consists of a guided missile directly UM119 and propellant devices. It has the same dimensions as a normal artvystrelami, so load it into the cassette transporter automatic loader and loading them guns has no features and differences from artvystrelami. Gun ammunition is 45 rounds, 22 of which are placed in a rotating conveyor autoloader.
guided weapons 9K120 provides guided missile firing in the afternoon with the place and with short stops at a range of 100 to 4000 meters. It has a semi-automatic system noise immunity missile control laser beam.
fire control system includes a sighting system 1A40-1, created on the basis of the laser sight - rangefinder TPD-K1 T-72A tank. Field of view sight stabilized in two planes.
For firing from a tank gun artvystrelami night and day guided missile used sight-guidance device 1K13-49, part of the complex 9K120 guided weapons. It can operate in both active and passive modes.
cannon armament stabilizer stabilizes 2E42-2 with an electrohydraulic drive vertical and horizontal guidance Electrically.
As an auxiliary weapons used 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun PKT and 12.7 mm anti-aircraft gun NSVT with manual control of the tank commander. Coaxial machine gun ammunition is 2000 rounds, anti-aircraft - 300 rounds.
Security, under which the property is taken to mean the tank, which characterizes its adaptability to survivability when using weapons attack the enemy, causing the possibility of crew to deliver on its combat missions. Security is provided by the integrated use of various means of both direct and indirect protection.
armor (passive) protection of the frontal part of the hull and turret armor is a multilayer barrier to ensure invulnerability from most types of armor-piercing shells and cumulative tank (anti) guns. High resistance against chemical weapons is achieved by installing hinged dynamic protection. The tank 227 containers of explosive reactive armor, including: the body - 61, on the tower - 70 on-board screens - 96.
Since 1988 uses an embedded dynamic protection, elements of which are structured in the armor of the tank.
Case T-72B tank welded, its upper frontal portion inclined at an angle of 68 degrees from the vertical. Tower cast, its frontal part has variable angles. Sides of the hull reserved protivokumulyativnymi screens. The tank is characterized by increased, compared with the T-72A, the level of radiation protection through the use of red lining and nadboya, a system of collective defense and the protection of local crew members. High level of survivability of the tank on the battlefield ensured low silhouette (2226 mm), using laying system (TDA) and 902B cloud system for production of smoke screens, using a system of protection against napalm and fast fighting equipment 3ETS13 Hoarfrost. Besides T-72B has a camouflage color, reducing the possibility of detection on the battlefield.
Tank T-72B is equipped with facilities for self-entrenching self extraction and weighing mine trawl KMT-6.
mobility characterizing fitness tank to arrive in a given area for a certain time, is due to the implementation of the power plant capacity. High mobility for installation on a four-tank multifuel diesel engine V-84-1-jet of liquid cooling of the drive centrifugal blower. Also used inertial supercharging. Engine power is 618 kWh (840 hp.).. It is fit for diesel fuel (DL, DZ, YES), jet fuel (T-1, TS-1, T-2) and motor gasoline (A-66, A-72). Main engine start starter, optional - compressed air. You can launch from the tug and current from an external source. To warm up the engine and its systems serving before starting the engine in winter heating system is provided. The engine has a constructive continuity with engines tanks earlier releases, which facilitates the establishment of its production and maintenance. Manual Transmission Planetary, consists of an input gear, two final gearboxes and two final drives. In cushioning system employed individual torsion bar suspension with hydraulic shock of increased power consumption lever-paddle type on the first, second and second pylons each side. Dynamic travel rollers increased to 325 mm (on the T-72A - 285 mm). Track rollers with dual external gumming and support - with internal shock absorbers.
tank is equipped with snorkeling equipment, allowing water obstacles to a depth of 5 m and a width of up to 1000 m without preparation Tank able to overcome a ford depth of 1.2 m, with a 10-minute preparation - 1.8 m
Command handling, expressed in sample fitness for concerted efforts and actions of the crew consisting of units of the complex is achieved by installing monitoring devices and intelligence apparatus intercom system TPU R-174, R-173 radio station, radio P-173P. Communication range of at least 20 km both on site and in the movement sredneperesechennoy terrain.
combat and technical characteristics of the T-72B
| Combat weight || 44,5 t |
| Crew || 3 people. |
| height of the roof of the tower || 2226 mm. |
| Gun || 125 mm smoothbore - launcher. |
| Ammunition || 45 shots. |
| Types of ammunition || BPS, BCS, OFS, a guided missile. |
| guided weapons || 9K120. < / tr> |
| guided missile || 9M120-controlled laser beam. |
| Launch range of SD || 100 4000 m ... |
| probability of hitting the target type ur tank when shooting from a place || 0,8. || Rangefinder || Laser. |
| stabilizer || Electro vertically, horizontally electromechanical. < / tr> |
| ballistic computer || Analog. |
| Loading the || Automatic. |
| Guns || One 12.7-mm, 7.62-mm one. |
| armor protection Combined ||. |
| Dynamic protection || Built. |
| Smoke grenade launchers || 8 pcs. |
| Maximum speed || 60 km / h |
| Average speed || 30 ... 35 km / h |
| Cruising on the highway || 500 km on the main refueling, 650 km with additional barrels . |
| Engine || twelve-four-multi-fuel diesel. |
| power output || 618 kW (840 hp..). |
| Transmission || Mechanical planetary. |
| Suspension || Torsion. |
| Caterpillar || With RLL. |
| Depth Fording will override || 5 m |