.

USS Kiev 1143

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    Country

    Russia

    type

    USS

    General characteristics

    Length (m):

    273,1

    Width (m):

    31

    Displacement (tons):

    42000

    Speed (knots):

    32

    Crew:

    2500

    Vooruzhenie

    guns:

    2 AK-726

    torpedo tubes:

    10

    Aircraft:

    12 Yak-38M

    PAC:

    6 P-500 Basalt 24 missiles

    Helicopters:

    20

    Air defense systems:

    8 AK-630

    PLC:

    1 RPK-1 "Whirlwind"
    2 RBU-12000 Boa

    electronic equipment

    Sonar:

    1 Horse Jaw

    Locator / Radar:

    1 Sky Watch 4 Planer phased array 3D
    2 Strut Pair
    3 Palm Frond

    MSA:

    1 Trap door
    1 Kite Screech
    4 Bass Tilt
    4 Cross Sword

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    Development and operation of the first national anti-cruisers Moscow in 1123 required the development of more advanced ships of this class. First of all, to ensure the effective implementation of the tasks entrusted to the RCC needed to increase the size of the ship's air group, strengthen arms, improve the seaworthiness of the ship and personnel placement conditions.

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    third helicopter antisubmarine cruiser with power armament, increased cruising range and a number of other enhancements (Moscow 1123) planned to lay the Black Sea Shipyard in Nikolaev in February 1968, but despite the fact that the plant had a proper pre-production and even managed to make some bottom sections of the new RCC, its tab on the stocks failed. The main reason for this was the intention of the Navy command ship equip future aircraft vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL).

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    TAVKR Kiev 1998 Murmansk Vidjaevo

    views on possible VTOL specialists was far from straightforward. Aircraft manufacturers of Germany and France only limited building prototypes. The greatest success achieved by the British. Western experts and the military in a number of cases seen in VTOL promising and less costly alternative to the classic aircraft aerodynamic configuration, ie with horizontal takeoff and landing. On the other hand, the machines themselves were then still very imperfect - their unique ability to take off and land vertically achieved through other significant deterioration of performance. In our country, the idea of using VTOL aircraft as deck came from Ustinov, while Secretary of the CPSU on the defense industry. For the Soviet Navy Commander Admiral SG Gorshkov limited VTOL is not a secret, but he did not mind. The prospect of the fleet aircraft carrier ships even a relatively small displacement it quite suited as a real opportunity to create a much-needed naval aviation shipborne.

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    Government Decision of September 2, 1968 № 685-251 adopted a joint proposal by the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Shipbuilding Industry to start construction of RCC "Kyiv 1143" to air armament.

    on ships of this project was assigned the following tasks:

    cover of naval forces from air attack, and their anti-submarine antiboat software;

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    Software SSBN combat stability in areas of combat patrols;

    ensuring the deployment of submarines;

    cover naval missile-carrying, anti-submarine and reconnaissance aircraft in range naval fighter aircraft;

    search and destroy missile submarines as part of heterogeneous groups antisubmarine forces;

    defeat groups of surface ships of the enemy;

    providing amphibious landings.

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    This Resolution entrusted the Ministry of Defence to issue within one month TTZ to design the ship Minsudpromu (NPKB) - on the instructions of the Ministry of Defense to develop in 1968 and preliminary 1969 - technical projects RCC "Kyiv 1143" . Great importance to meet the deadlines of construction was timely preparation of production CSY. Therefore Neva PKB has begun to develop a new conceptual design of the ship before the formal release decisions.

    At the initiative of

    AV Marinich within conceptual design was developed in a total of nine variants of the project (I - IX), six of them - according to the TTP and three action. First differed architectural layout, placement of weapons, machinery and equipment, structural protection and volume, respectively, construction schedule and cost. In addition, 32 private NPKB study performed to evaluate the possibility of replacing some of the more promising models of weapons.

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    Upon review to further the design I was chosen as the best option. The rest either require costly (and time) for new developments (catapults, arresting gear, emergency barriers aircraft catapult takeoff, etc.), or did not provide conditions based aircraft, and most importantly - not to withstand the planned construction time. < / p>

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    October 16, 1968 Navy Commander TTZ approved the design of RCC with air armament "Kyiv 1143" (code "Merlin"). Given received during the review of preliminary design proposals and amendments, decisions were made to reduce the amount of structural protection, replacing the previously proposed for placement on the ship ASM P-120 Malachite more powerful P-500 Basalt, integrator of radio communication equipment, as well as increase in tonnage to 28,000 tons. In the summer of 1969 on the basis of proposals NPKB to deploy missiles P-500 Basalt (complex was then also under development) and Navy SMEs separate decision to increase this to 29,000 t

    Tekhproekt "Kyiv 1143" was developed in a very short time and approved by the Navy and SMEs April 30, 1970 The main elements of the ship and measures to ensure its construction approved in February 1971 New RCC shifted in aircraft carrier to starboard superstructure, flight deck overhang console looked very impressive and favorably with previous series of ships.

    Rocket Artillery and anti-submarine weaponry was in the bow, as well as behind the superstructure.

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    significant changes undergone avionics weapons. While maintaining many legacy systems (MP-600, "Gursuf", "Orion", etc.) ships pr.1143 received a number of new and improved long-haul and management, most of which have not been adopted by industry. So, the former three-coordinate radar coverage of the air situation "Angara" was replaced by a more sophisticated station "Frigate". Had for the first time set to lead ship, test and adopt communication systems "Typhoon-1", "Tsunami-BM" navigation system "Salgir-1143" control system "Caspian" system "Drive NE", "Stork -K "," Azure ", the main strike complex" Hurricane 1143 "- only 24 (!) brand new products and systems.

    Designing new ship was accompanied by a plethora of challenges, such as the creation bespillersovoy construction hangar covering an area of about 3000 square meters. m, special heat-resistant coating of the flight deck, which protects it from the effects of high-temperature (1000 °) gas jet planes taking off vertically, manufacture and installation of sound transmission and durable radome antenna post GASdiametrom 8.4 m, providing fire and explosion safety and maintenance of aircraft armament, ordering air flows over the upper deck (to create favorable conditions takeoff and landing).

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    In 1972

    zavodchane documentation NPKB manufactured and built on the airfield full-scale ship compartment with a portion of the runway. It established the Yak-36M and conducted a series of tests to determine the engine power and thermal impact of gas jets on the deck, as well as noise levels measured in the under-deck spaces. The first run resulted in a strong buckling of the steel deck surface area compartment test had to be interrupted. I had to quickly solve the problem of thermal insulation. Did Union Institute of Aviation Materials - he developed heat-resistant coating of AK-9F.

    presence on board of RCC "Kyiv 1143" quite unusual for numerous aircraft carrier missile, artillery and anti-submarine systems designed for a variety of combat missions, determined the kind of "hybrid" type of architecture of the ship.

    aircraft carrier Kiev in 1143

    system of the hull along the entire length was longitudinal in the extremities - transverse. The housing and the two lower tiers bunk 9 superstructure made of steel AK-25 (thickness 30 mm), and AK-27 (above 35 mm). Superstructure, starting with the third tier and above, was made of AMg. All vertical surface of the superstructure, and a funnel body itself made inclined from the vertical (10 °) in order to minimize the amount of radar field and, as a consequence - the visibility of the whole ship. I must say that if adopted specialists Nevsky PKB solutions in some cases anticipated technology «stealth», which so much attention is paid to the West today.

    housing cruisers had 18 major transverse and longitudinal two watertight bulkheads. It was the middle of the six decks and two platforms. Hangar located directly under the engine rooms, and they, as well as cellars and cellar aviaboezapasa spare missiles main missile submarine equipped with complex structural protection (UCP). Continuous along the length of the double bottom at a sufficiently large distance (District engine and boiler rooms, cellars and ammunition NBI) passed into the double hull, which housed side tanks that have been raised in height to the 6th deck.

    According to the then existing anti-nuclear defense requirements, the combat capability of the ship had to be kept in air-kiloton explosion 30 nuclear charge at a distance of 2000 m This unsinkable ensured in case of flooding of any four adjacent compartments (excluding the hangar where the boundary was unsinkable 5 I-deck, and said figure was three compartments).

    Flight Deck with sponsons total area of 6200 square meters. m plot with combined the takeoff runway. It settled seven runways positions for VTOL and helicopters. On the starboard aft flight deck were still 10 technical positions for flight service equipment.

    On

    lead ship pr.1143 envisaged the possibility of basing 22 aircraft in two trim levels - airplane or helicopter. All of them are stored in single-stage hangar (130x22, 5x6, 6 m) associated with the flight deck two samoletopodemnikami (elevators), the left and aft of the superstructure. The first of them was used for LAC descent into the hangar, and the second - for lifting. Design capacity of the hangar was 22 aircraft, but after a visit in 1975 "Kiev" Defense Minister Marshal Grechko, need to increase the number of aircraft in half, the layout of machines in the hangar revised. After the abolition of the ban on mandatory Minister gap between them to 0.75 m and permission to put the aircraft "jack" hangar capacity increased to 36 LAC.

    Moving aircraft and helicopters on the top deck made with special trailers, the hangar - with the use of longitudinal-transverse towing. Hangar equipped with ventilation systems with automatic shut-off in case of fire, control vapor concentrations of jet fuel, water spray, air-foam fire extinguishing and alarm systems, if necessary, five are lowered asbestos fire curtains could share a common space of the hangar to six isolated areas.

    Unlike American practice, Fleet Air Arm of the ship "in 1143 Kiev" has not been fixed and could vary depending on the problem. Planes option was to welcome aboard 20 VTOL and two rescue helicopters, helicopter - 20 cars Ka-25PL and two rescue. To ensure the activities of naval aviation group (in airplane version) stored on board the necessary supplies of jet fuel, as well as 18 spetsaviabomb RN-28, guided and unguided missiles, cluster bombs, etc.

    Mace missiles represented cruiser missile complex "Hurricane-1143", which consisted of four paired nenavodyaschihsya container launchers SM-241 fixed-angle start, control station "Argon-1143", scheduled monitoring equipment and eight cruise missiles P- 500 Basalt. Envisaged the possibility of a single charge of the main complex, which has 8 spare missiles were stored in the cellar.

    Antisubmarine armament of the ship pr.1143 exactly correspond to the RCC established in 1123 Moscow.

    electronic weapons included automated system for collecting and processing information, and develop solutions targeting "Alley-2" (control arms and radio equipment RCC, as well as guidance helicopters) sonar range detection of submarines fast MG-342 sonar system to detect submarines "Platinum", the equipment receiving information from sonobuoy MGS-407K, station submarine detection by the thermal contrast wake MI-110K, submarine detection station to swirl MI-ERP, three-coordinate radar noise immunity and long-range air detection targeting MR-600 (main), three-coordinate pomehozashchishchennyh radar detection of air and surface targets "Fregat" (backup) system, automated radar data processing and targeting "Baikal-1143", a system of radar identification equipment "Silicon-2M", marine equipment MOC-301 targeting, navigation radar "Volga" and "Vaygach-1143" (with block "Palma"). The ship was equipped with a navigation system "Salgir-1143", two echo sounders (NEL NEL-6-10), automated complex communications "Typhoon-1" (14 KB - and two CB-radio, 21 KB - and one NE - and ADD radio, 13 FM radio stations). Tools sigint - three radio type P-678N, six - of the R-670M and two - type P-721, in addition, two sets of panoramic device CDS-2, Wide-FM receivers R-710 and R-714 radio and staging system (VHF) R-740K. According to the project the ship was equipped with automated systems near navigation drive and embarkation aircraft "Drive NE." The structure of electronic weapons included media environment of radar and electronic countermeasures "Gursuf" and "Gursuf-1" support equipment to operate simultaneously ship radio equipment, sonar "Orion" (podkilnaya) and "Platinum" (towed antenna). In this case, unlike the RCC pr.1123, sonar "Orion" on TAVKR pr.1143 housed in a stationary bulb fairing. Airborne acoustical systems in conjunction with other tools allow you to spot the target for any available for submarines diving depth.

    Main propulsion "Kyiv 1143", with unified formerly used EC 58 cruisers Grozny and Moscow in 1123, was adopted chetyrehvalnoy, boiler and turbine (eight boilers KVN 98/64), with high steam parameters, total capacity 180,000 liters. with. powerplant consisted of four autonomous turbokotelnyh groups located on two in two engine and boiler room, forming two separate compartments and each working on its propeller. Four major turbozubchatyh type unit TV-12-3 allowed the ship to develop full speed of 30.7 knots. Ship power plants (six turbine generators and four diesel generators with a total capacity of 15,000 kW) located vsmezhnyh energootsekah with ICE, the rate of two per tier. Elements of the plant, generator sets and main switchboards were unified with pr.1123. For automated control system served EEU "Terek-2." Widely used suspension mechanisms and use in coatings, especially in the engine rooms.

    In June 1977 all ships "Kyiv 1143" was officially reclassified from antisubmarine cruisers in heavy aircraft (aircraft carrier) cruisers - TAVKR. Accordingly, somewhat differently formulated and their main purpose: now the role of ships "in 1143 Kiev" was "giving the combat stability SSBNs, groups of surface forces, submarine and MRA in the areas of combat deployment." That is among the tasks of the cruisers in the first place was not hunting for enemy submarines, but rather cover our submarines from enemy ASW aircraft.

    121 Kiev1976/1993

    Descent TAKR "Kiev" on water held December 26, 1972. Due to the delay of many of delivery and installation of a number of new weapons not covered by the approved project (supplementary proposals Navy require increased amount of work), the construction of the lead ship was delayed. Its mooring trials conducted in October 1974 - April 1975, the factory running in April-August, and the state - in August and December of the same year. State tests conducted ship governmental commission led by the Deputy Commander of the Northern Fleet, Vice Admiral EI Volobueva. Vice-chairman of the commission were appointed chief designer TAKR etc. 1143 AV Marynitch and vice. General Designer MMZ "Speed" CB Bekirbaev. Responsible deliverer from CSY ship was the main builder of the plant I. Vinnik. Acceptance act TAKR head with air armament "Kiev" signed (rated) after its state test December 28, 1975

    In July-August 1976 aircraft carrier "Kiev" (with five combat serial VTOL Yak-Z6M and one academic Yak-Z6MU) made the transition around Europe to place their home in the Northern Fleet. In the Mediterranean Sea, at about. Crete, the first outside the Soviet Yak-Z6M flights. During the transition pilots performed 45 flights. In the North, in August-December 1976 on state tests were conducted TAKR second phase - strike missile complex "Basalt" comprehensive testing electronic equipment as part of the ship's band, group flights Varnish and sea trials the ship. Acceptance certificate signed by the second phase of 3 December 1976. Resolution of the Government in February 1977 aircraft carrier "Kiev" took on vooruzhenieVMF.

    In 1977 - 1982 years. "Kiev" has repeatedly carried on combat duty in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. By the end of 1977 in the 1st Regiment assault the ship, which was recruited from the wing aircraft carrier "Kiev", flew for 34 marine pilot.

    In late 1995, "Minsk" was towed to South Korea for cutting its metal casing.

    After

    carrier was oversold Chinese company Shenzhen Minsk Aircraft Carrier Industry Co Ltd. In 2006, when the company went bankrupt, "Minsk" was part of the military park in Shenzhen. March 22, 2006 the carrier was put up for auction, but there were no buyers. May 31, 2006 the carrier was again put up for auction and was sold for 128 million yuan.

    137 Novorossiysk1982/1993

    original plan of naval shipbuilding in the USSR after the construction of the heavy aircraft carrier cruisers - "Kiev" and "Minsk" - supposed to go for a "real" aircraft carriers - with horizontal planes taking off and landing. In this direction, worked many public and private institutes and design bureaus. Construction of the third aircraft carrier was recommended to lead with maximum use of the documentation of the lead ship, but with increasing numbers of aircraft to 30 units and the rejection of torpedoes (Project 1143M).

    1143M Project was approved in January 1975, and on September 30 the laying ship (order C-103) on the stocks "0" Black Sea Shipyard in Nikolaev. Originally it was supposed to be called "Baku", which would correspond to a well-established tradition in the USSR call carrying ships in honor of the capitals of the Union republics. However, at the suggestion of the USSR Defense Minister Grechko, a ship named "Novorossiysk" - kind of advertising then widely promoted in the country, "bestseller" - the book "Little Earth" General Secretary Brezhnev.

    With the appointment in 1976 to the post of Defense Minister Ustinov, major efforts are still decided to send "to further improve the ships carrier aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL)." Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR on February 1, 1977 the construction of the third RCC with these changes, was approved. With effect from March 1977 new classification ships VMFPKR "Novorossiysk" is classified as a heavy aircraft carrying cruiser (aircraft carrier). Abridged technical project 1143M was designed Nevsky PKB (chief designer of the project-A. V. Marynitch) and submitted to the Navy and SMEs in July 1974

    Despite the fact that the ship was already under construction, in his project continues to make various changes, primarily related to the adoption in the summer of 1977 the U.S. Navy adopted a new low-altitude cruise missiles Harpoon. Potential future massive use of these missiles against Soviet warships forced Neva PKB exercise study to determine the main directions of modernization projects TAKR 1143 and 1143M to improve their combat stability. However, nothing much has newly built ship, do not have time.

    After the submitted

    Nevsky PKB project developments, it was decided: to ensure the ship basing and combat use 36 aircraft to equip the runway the flight deck of the ship 3 venting device, and increase by 50% stocks of jet fuel.

    In providing solutions to strengthen the air defense ship envisaged the possibility of equipping it with the latest anti-aircraft missile systems, rocket and artillery systems "Dirk".

    December 26, 1978 aircraft carrier "Novorossiysk" was launched. At the completion of the ship due to slippage of development and manufacturing of head samples "" Novorossiysk "has not been set, none of the 2 project envisaged AAMS Dagger. Besides, there were no on it and previously applied in previous TAKR SAM Osa / Oca-M, as well as complexes "Dirk." As a result, the new ship was left without any missile defense systems, short-range (!). Regiment "Novorossiysk" had still to complete aircraft "Yak-38". All of this ultimately significantly reduced the combat potential of a new aircraft carrier.

    May 14, 1983 aircraft carrier "Novorossiysk" (tail number 137) left Sevastopol and began to shift around Europe Severomorsk, where he arrived on June 7. During the period of temporary stay of the ship in the Northern Fleet on it continued testing of coursework tasks. October 17, 1983 "Novorossiysk" began its transition from Severomorsk around Europe, Africa and Asia went to their permanent home - to the Pacific Fleet. But there were circumstances that serve aircraft carrier "Novorossiysk" in the fleet happened a relatively short time.

    In 1983 VTOL "Yak-38" has been discontinued, due to the start of production of Yak-38M (just released 50 machines), and the new VTOL "Yak-41" and not appeared. As a result, left without aircraft, "Novorossiysk" was downgraded to a helicopter. But in this as the ship did not have to serve, and his troubles were caused by a whole set of objective circumstances, continued.

    perennial problems of the Soviet Navy was based software warships. Pursuit of the economy in favor of the creation of new ships led to the fact that old rear infrastructure could not provide basing all incoming ships. It happened with the aircraft carrier "Novorossiysk" in the Pacific Fleet.

    The ship was forced

    long time to be on the roads of Vladivostok and very quickly fully developed resources weapons, machinery and equipment. At the same time, funds for the repair of aircraft carrier in command was not. Last Exit "Novorossiysk" at sea in May 1991, after the completion of repairs on the power navigation "Dalzavod».

    Finally, in June 1993 the command of the Russian Navy, it was decided to disarm aircraft carrier "Novorossiysk" and expel him from the Navy in connection with the transfer of property to the Department of the stock for dismantling and implementation. August 31, 1994 it was disbanded and raised in the Bay Postovaya (Sovgavan) onto the sludge, and in January 1996 sold for 4314 million South Korean company "Young Distribution Co." scrapped and towed to claim Chusan (South Korea ).

    103 Admiral Gorshkov1987/1993

    fourth ship of the series - TAKR "Baku" (later renamed "Admiral Gorshkov") is sometimes singled out as a separate class. It differs placing radar with a phased antenna array, improved electronics and OHR Dagger.

    But in 10 years of being in the Navy battle ship only once to fulfill the tasks of combat duty in the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic. This happened immediately after it was built during the transition from the Black Sea Fleet in the North. Then cruiser stood four years, as sailors say, "on the barrel" on North Sea raid in the Kola Bay and only occasionally went into the Barents Sea for 2-3 weeks ...

    In February 1992, the cruiser put to the dock dockyard "Northern Sea Route" in Murmansk. Set course for repair. Failed to only about 12% of the planned amount. Managed to replace boilers. During their tests 7 February 1994 ruptured steam line. Superheated steam under strong pressure began to come into the living room. Illegally incarcerated ship seven sailors conscripts boiled alive. Since that day, the steam line, which was required for the repair of about 5 billion rubles. in 1997 prices, was decommissioned. Thereby exploit banned group and boiler.

    Over the years the amount of necessary expenses for input in a combat ship of the Northern Fleet has increased many times and hundreds of millions of rubles. This happened because the equipment, even though she stands idle, has the ability to mentally and physically obsolete and requires replacement. And besides, from the apparatus radio complex TAVKR were stolen chips and boards containing precious metal alloys.

    In 1996, it became clear that Russia will never be able to ignite the flame in furnaces "Gorshkov". By this time it was negotiated with India to sell its Russian aircraft carrier. Indian Navy Commander Admiral Singh personally visited the Northern Fleet and inspected the ship. Indian guest he is called, has attracted ...

    January 20, 2004 "Admiral Gorshkov" sold India (Vikramaditya).





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