Winged antiship missile P-70 Amethyst




    management system:

    Radar GOS








    80 km.

    year development:


    antiship missile cruise p-70 amethyst April 1, 1959 issued a decree USSR № 363-170 to develop the world's first anti-ship cruise missile with underwater launch.

    The composition

    developers included:

    OKB-52 GKAT - head by a rocket;

    KB-2 GKAT - marching and starter motors;

    NII-6 GKOT - fuel engine and warhead conventional type;

    CDB-34 (Chief Designer BG drum) - Starting Position for submarines of 661 and 670;

    NII-49 (Chief Designer Mitrofanov BA) - missile control system;

    SRI-3 (Chief Designer N. Sviridov) - Develop a set of Sonar "Rubin", provides detection of surface ships and the issue of targeting for missiles "Amethyst".

    Draft project "Amethyst" was completed in 1959. Stage joint tests took place in March 1965 by September 1966 CM Resolution of 3 June 1968 missile "Amethyst" was adopted by the Navy, where the rocket "Amethyst" received secret P-70 index and unclassified - 4K66.

    first carrier rockets "Amethyst" was supposed to be speed nuclear submarine project 661. The submarine K-162 Project 661 Severodvinsk was founded in December 28, 1963. However, work on its completion and testing was delayed, and she went into operation only December 31, 1969. Submarine Project 661 was created to fight the enemy aircraft carrier compounds. Speed long underwater speed was 37-38 knots, ie, it went faster aircraft carriers and escort ships to 5-7 knots. Ten missiles "Amethyst" is in a container placed in the bow of the submarine at the board outside the pressure hull, obliquely to the horizon. Later on the series-built 661 boats abandoned the project, primarily for the reason that for the release of all the ammunition needed to make 2 separate volley interval which is about three minutes, which dramatically reduced the efficiency of a rocket attack. Overcome this disadvantage (release all ten missiles in one salvo) led to the need to alter radically the containment system at the starting depth of the submarine.

    Next generation submarines designed for combat aircraft carriers - Project 670A boats - built faster. Submarine of Project 670A K-43 was commissioned in 1967. Whole Plant "Red Sormovo" was built 10 submarines of Project 670A.


    antiship missile cruise p-70 amethyst Missiles PL 670-year project - eight RCC "Amethyst" - housed in container launchers SM-97, placed in front of the ship outside the pressure hull at an angle of 32.5 ° to horizon. In a typical ammunition boats were two missiles equipped with nuclear warheads, as well as six missiles with conventional warheads. Shooting RCC could be done in two chetyrehraketnymi volleys from a depth of 30 m at a speed of not more boats 5.5 knots and sea state up to 5 points.

    Rocket "Amethyst" (see diagram) was performed on normal aerodynamic scheme and had a folding wing.


    produced from a submarine at a depth of up to 30 m of seawater previously flooded container. Fender flares automatically disclosed under water immediately after coming out of the container. Underwater triggered four starting the engine and motors underwater speed, and after the rocket to the surface includes four starting the engine air path, and then the main engine (see photo nozzle unit). Flight took place at an altitude of 50-60 m at subsonic speeds, making it difficult to intercept missile air defense of enemy ships. "Amethyst" was designed for two modes of firing range of 40-60 km and 80 km. Small range allows to perform target designation means of the boat.

    rocket equipped with high-explosive shaped-charge warhead-4D-66 weighs about 1,000 kg or special warhead.

    Sustainer engine 293-P worked on fuel injection and 4 starting underwater stroke engine, 4 starter motor for the air path and 2 engine garbage - a conventional ballistic gunpowder IMP-2. Boosters had dvuhshashechnuyu original scheme with three side beveled semi-flush nozzles. Weight fuel injection brand LTS-2KM was 1040 kg. When shooting at a distance of 40-60 km boosters worked for about three minutes.

    antiship missile cruise p-70 amethyst System Management "Thor" was developed by NII-49 Ministry of Shipbuilding Industry. "Amethyst" had autonomous onboard control system implemented on a "fire and forget".

    The system management included:



    analog computer

    radar seeker.

    homing system decide which of several objective detected based on an analysis of the energy characteristics of the reflected signals from the goals and objectives of geometric arrangement of features in the resulting radar picture, such as the location of carrier-based aircraft carrier in the warrant.

    Launchers for "Amethyst" were designed by CDB-34, including:

    launcher CM-101 floating stand;

    launcher CM-107 for a converted submarine pilot project 61ZA;

    launcher for SM-97 nuclear submarine of project 661;

    launcher for SM-97A nuclear submarine project 670A.


    launchers conducted at the factory number 232 "Bolshevik".

    antiship missile cruise p-70 amethyst Along with the many advantages of the rocket "Amethyst" and had flaws. First of all - this is a small range, and lack of immunity and selectivity of the onboard control system. In addition, the rocket was not universal - made only start from a submarine and only submerged.


    Maximum range, km


    Cruising speed, km / h


    Cruising altitude missiles, m


    Missile length


    Diameter, m


    launch mass, kg.



    high explosive or nuclear-cumulative

    conventional warhead weight, kg


    TNT equivalent of nuclear warheads, CT


    tests and operation

    throwing tests were conducted in August and September 1960. The first stage of flight tests included 10 starts with PSA stand submerged in Balaklava. The first launch of a cruise missile complex "Amethyst" from underwater position was made June 24, 1961. Until the end of the year there have been two starters. In 1963-1964, the factory number 444 submarine S-229 was converted to the project 61ZAD carrier rockets "Amethyst". In July and December 1964, with the submarine S-229 missiles launched 6, 3 of which had a direct hit on target and two launches were unsuccessful.


    joint tests held in the Black Sea on the submarine project 61ZA from March 1965 to September 1966. Just made 13 starts, the tests were "mostly successful." In October-November 1967, the Northern Fleet conducted flight tests of control "Amethyst" with a submarine of Project 670A. Just made 10 starts. 2 of them - single, 2 - and 1 dvuhraketnym volley - chetyrehraketnym volley.

    submarine K-43 from January 1988 to 1991 was part of the Indian Navy, in this case about a year spent in autonomous navigation. All training completed missile firing at a target with a direct hit. January 5, 1991 boat rental period has expired. India exerted persistent efforts to extend the lease and even purchase the same type of boat. However, under U.S. pressure, the Russian leadership has abandoned plans sale of submarines with nuclear power plants.


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